The other was abolitionism, which wanted to end slavery. 4 (March 1991), p. 1218 and 1237. International Conference of Reformed Churches, North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council, 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ethnocultural politics in the United States, "Backcountry Religious Ways: The North British Field-Meeting Style", "Religious Transformation and the Second Great Awakening", Introducing Black Harry Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana's Namesake, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the U.S. and Canada, Christian churches and churches of Christ, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Great_Awakening&oldid=994589470, History of Christianity in the United States, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It impacts race and religion and sex and gender. [42] In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians began progressive movements to reform society during this period. Thus, evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of 19th century reform movements. It is sometimes overlooked, but it is important. Young people (those under 25) also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert. All seven of his sons, including Henry Ward Beecher, followed their father into the ministry. Beecher and his peers were greatly influenced by the Second Great Awakening, a Protestant religious revival of the early 1800s, firmly committed to abolishing slavery. The Second Great Awakening led to two movements in reform, that is, changing laws and behaviors to make society better. It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, E dward Everett and Joseph Smith. It started in upstate New York in the 1790s, but spread to New England and the Midwest. The Great Awakening notably altered the religious climate in the American colonies. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. These organizations were primarily sponsored by affluent women. Long, Kimberly Bracken. The outpouring of religious fervor and revival began in Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1790s and early 1800s among the Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. Create or edit article. Johnson, Charles A. New religious movements emerged during the Second Great Awakening, such as Adventism, Dispensationalism, and the Latter Day Saint movement. The revivals also followed an arc of great emotional power, with an emphasis on the individual's sins and need to turn to Christ, and a sense of restoring personal salvation. – Henry Ward Beecher. This differed from the Calvinists' belief in predestination as outlined in the Westminster Confession of Faith, which emphasized the inability of men to save themselves and decreed that the only way to be saved was by God's electing grace. Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1750s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s. [1] During the Second Great Awakening, thousands of people gathered at large religious meetings called revivals. Conforti, Joseph. Lyman Beecher [1775-1863] was a prominent Presbyterian preacher during the Great Awakening period and father to 13 children, including Henry Ward Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe. [14] Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly. E. 3 (8) The Second Great Awakening Large religious revival from 1801-1845. [citation needed] Another key component of the revivalists' techniques was the camp meeting. By the early 19th century, independent African-American congregations numbered in the several hundreds in some cities of the South, such as Charleston, South Carolina, and Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia. – Henry Ward Beecher. Rate! [8][9] Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term. It led to the founding of several well known colleges, seminaries and mission societies. [21], The Advent Movement emerged in the 1830s and 1840s in North America, and was preached by ministers such as William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. [43], The religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening was echoed by the new political enthusiasm of the Second Party System. Soon after, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AME Zion) was founded as another denomination in New York City. This page was last changed on 11 April 2020, at 13:05. Beecher was influential in the Second Great Awakening, along with Charles Finney, Barton Stone and Peter Cartwright. All three of these congregations were under the ministry of James McGready. Beecher was influential in the Second Great Awakening, along with Charles Finney, Barton Stone and Peter Cartwright. Beecher attended Amherst College, beginning in 1830, at the peak of what is now known as the Second Great Awakening. [32] With the growth in congregations and churches, Baptist associations formed in Virginia, for instance, as well as Kentucky and other states. Shiels, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation". This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 14:32. The Presbyterians and Methodists sponsored similar gatherings on a regular basis after the Revolution. The third and final phase (1825–35) stemmed from the activities of evangelist Charles Grandison Finney, who began his revivalism in small towns in western New York in the 1820s but eventually conducted revival meetings in the largest… After first submitting to oversight by the established Methodist bishops, several AME congregations finally left to form the first independent African-American denomination in the United States in 1816. Newer denominations, such as Methodists and Baptists, grew quickly. Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. Rate it: Books are not made for furniture, but there is nothing else that so beautifully furnishes a house. [19][20], The converts during the Second Great Awakening were predominantly female. George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently pointed out. [23]:89 Several factors made the restoration sentiment particularly appealing during this time period:[23]:90–94, The Restoration Movement began during, and was greatly influenced by, the Second Great Awakening. The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.[22]. Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, Elizabeth J.Clapp, and Julie Roy Jeffrey, ed., Women, Dissent and Anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790–1865, (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 13–14, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in Clio's Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. The Second Great Awakening occurred in several episodes and over different denominations; however, the revivals were very similar. Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. Religion. [18] Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement, which consisted of non-denominational churches committed to what they viewed as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. FANDOM. (D) more sympathetic to hierarchical churches like Catholicism. Settlers in thinly populated areas gathered at the camp meeting for fellowship as well as worship. How did the people of the Second Great Awakening think they would bring about a Golden Age in America? The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. [28] Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. – Henry Ward Beecher. As a result, local churches saw their roles in society in purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation, and through changes in the law and the creation of institutions. To a lesser extent the Presbyterians also gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas. Rate it: Every artist dips his brush in his own soul, and paints his own nature into his pictures. [23]:89–94 This desire to restore a purer form of Christianity without an elaborate hierarchy contributed to the development of many groups during the Second Great Awakening, including the Latter Day Saints, Baptists and Shakers. Especially in the Baptist Church, African Americans were welcomed as members and as preachers. They moved to Lawrenceburg, Indiana, where Beecher had a job as a minister. He had 13 children, many of whom became notable people, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Catharine Beecher … Search Sign In Don't have an account? [13], In the newly settled frontier regions, the revival was implemented through camp meetings. Beecher, Henry Ward (24 June 1813–08 March 1887), preacher and reformer, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the son of Lyman Beecher, a leader of the Second Great Awakening, and Roxana Foote. A year later, in August 1801, an even larger sacrament occasion that is generally considered to be America's first camp meeting was held at Cane Ridge in Bourbon County, Kentucky, under Barton W. Stone (1772–1844) with numerous Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist ministers participating in the services. Though its roots are in the First Great Awakening and earlier, a re-emphasis on Wesleyan teachings on sanctification emerged during the Second Great Awakening, leading to a distinction between Mainline Methodism and Holiness churches. The revival also inspired slaves to demand freedom. "The Second Great Awakening in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism and the 'New Measures, Cott, Nancy F. "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening in New England,". Beecher's Bibles Beecher City, Illinois Harriet Beecher Stowe House (Ohio) Second Great Awakening. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. "[7] During the Second Great Awakening of the 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a few years. Leaders such as Charles Finney saw women's public prayer as a crucial aspect in preparing a community for revival and improving their efficacy in conversion. Known commonly as antebellum reform, this phenomenon included reforms against the consumption of alcohol, for women's rights and abolition of slavery, and a multitude of other issues faced by society. As a student at Amherst College, he helped found an abolitionist organization, which was promptly shut down by the faculty. It is a much larger awakening than the first one. The Second Great Awakening began in the last decade of the 18th century and reached its peak in the second half of the 19th century, in the revivalist oratory and hymnody of camp ... and Henry Ward Beecher provided high drama, and elicited intense emotional responses from the congregation. Women made up a large part of these voluntary societies. As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists. "The Communion Sermons of James Mcgready: Sacramental Theology and Scots-Irish Piety on the Kentucky Frontier", Meyer, Neil. From the 1850s to the 1880s, Beecher … Lyman Beecher is not only one of the most famous preachers of the nineteenth century, but is also the father of several famous children, including minister Henry Ward Beecher and author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Lyman Beecher (October 12, 1775 – January 10, 1863) was an important minister during the Second Great Awakening.He was a Presbyterian minister. Stephen Meardon, "From Religious Revivals to Tariff Rancor: Preaching Free Trade and Protection during the Second American Party System,". [2] It rejected the skepticism, deism, Unitarianism, and rationalism left over from the American Enlightenment,[3] about the same time that similar movements flourished in Europe. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism. Born in New Haven, Connecticut, on October 12, 1775, Lyman Beecher was a Presbyterian minister who co-founded the American Temperance Society in 1826 and is often credited as one of the driving forces behind the Second Great Awakening in the early part of the 19th century.. [11], On the American frontier, evangelical denominations, especially Methodists and Baptists, sent missionary preachers and exhorters to meet the people in the backcountry in an effort to support the growth of church membership and the formation of new congregations. Women's prayer groups were an early and socially acceptable form of women's organization. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Lyman Beecher. The awakening brought comfort in the face of uncertainty as a result of the socio-political changes in America. Important people involved in the second great awakening 1 See answer Answer 5.0 /5 1. guy1162buu +3 kvargli6h and 3 others learned from this answer It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, Edward Everett and Joseph Smith. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. [24]:368 The Southern phase of the Awakening "was an important matrix of Barton Stone's reform movement" and shaped the evangelistic techniques used by both Stone and the Campbells. [45], Historians stress the common understanding among participants of reform as being a part of God's plan. Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. Richard Allen, the other black attendee, was ordained by the Methodists in 1799, but his congregation of free African Americans in Philadelphia left the church there because of its discrimination. [35] Women also took crucial roles in the conversion and religious upbringing of children. Lyman Beecher is not only one of the most famous preachers of the nineteenth century, but is also the father of several famous children, including minister Henry Ward Beecher and author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Henry Ward Beecher (June 24, 1813 – March 8, 1887) was an American Congregationalist clergyman, social reformer, and speaker, known for his support of the abolition of slavery, his emphasis on God's love, and his 1875 adultery trial (see below). (B) more reliant on women as members and social reformers. Following in the footsteps of his father and his five brothers, Henry … Members of these groups acted as apostles for the faith, and also as educators and exponents of northeastern urban culture. Due to the efforts of such leaders as Stone and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival spread religious enthusiasm and became a major mode of church expansion, especially for the Methodists and Baptists. [7], In the early days of the nineteenth century, western New York State was called the "burned-over district" because of the highly publicized revivals that crisscrossed the region. Beecher was influential in the Second Great Awakening, along with Charles Finney, Barton Stone and Peter Cartwright. Henry Ward Beecher was regarded as the most popular Christian minister in the United States for more than 30 years of his life. Converts were taught that to achieve salvation they needed not just to repent personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society, which meant eradicating sin in all its forms. The Second Great Awakening led to new religious movements such as the Holiness Movement and the Mormons, and helped groups like the Methodist Church grow.[2]. Among the new denominations that grew from the religious ferment of the Second Great Awakening are the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. Through his religious studies, Beecher became enrapt in the question of slavery. During the period of revival, mothers were seen as the moral and spiritual foundation of the family, and were thus tasked with instructing children in matters of religion and ethics. Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, and slaves were converted. The Second Great Awakening partly reshaped American religion by making it (A) more dependent on a college-educated clergy. The spirit of evangelical humanitarian reforms was carried on in the antebellum Whig party. Preacher and reformer, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the son of Lyman Beecher, a leader of the Second Great Awakening, and Roxana Foote. Beecher married three times, after becoming a widower twice, and fathered 13 children. Husbands, especially in the South, sometimes disapproved of their wives' conversion, forcing women to choose between submission to God or their spouses. In an effort to give sermons that would resonate with the congregation, ministers stressed Christ's humility and forgiveness, in what the historian Barbara Welter calls a "feminization" of Christianity. "Black Harry" Hosier, an illiterate freedman who drove Francis Asbury on his circuits, proved to be able to memorize large passages of the Bible verbatim and became a cross-over success, as popular among white audiences as the black ones Asbury had originally intended for him to minister. Despite being called the "greatest orator in America" by Benjamin Rush[31] and one of the best in the world by Bishop Thomas Coke,[30] Hosier was repeatedly passed over for ordination and permitted no vote during his attendance at the Christmas Conference that formally established American Methodism. [33] Despite white attempts to control independent African-American congregations, especially after the Nat Turner uprising of 1831, a number of African-American congregations managed to maintain their separation as independent congregations in Baptist associations. Varel, David A. Beecher was influential in the Second Great Awakening, along with Charles Finney, Barton Stone and Peter Cartwright. 268,882 Pages. [15], The Revival of 1800 in Logan County, Kentucky, began as a traditional Presbyterian sacramental occasion. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1981. Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America", Carwardine, Richard J. Mentored by Timothy Dwight at Yale, he emerged a fiery, earnest, and revival-minded young minister just at the cusp of the Second Great Awakening. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. They founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Philadelphia. "The Invention of the Great Awakening, 1795–1842". Barbara Leslie Epstein, The Politics of Domesticity. Whitefield ignited the Great Awakening, a major religious revival that became the first major mass movement in American history. [24]:368 While the leaders of one of the two primary groups making up this movement, Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell, resisted what they saw as the spiritual manipulation of the camp meetings, the revivals contributed to the development of the other major branch, led by Barton W. [24]:368, Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. [26] The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women's organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.[27]. Birdsall, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order". It was amid these circumstances that Lyman Beecher stood before his congregation in Litchfield , Connecticut, to deliver a series of sermons on the nature and dangers of intemperance. There were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to larger societal ones. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. However, women took other public roles; for example, relaying testimonials about their conversion experience, or assisting sinners (both male and female) through the conversion process. In 1800, out of African-American revival meetings in Virginia, a plan for slave rebellion was devised by Gabriel Prosser, although the rebellion was discovered and crushed before it started. [16][17] Presbyterians and Methodists initially worked together to host the early camp meetings, but the Presbyterians eventually became less involved because of the noise and often raucous activities that occurred during the protracted sessions. [10] Linda K. Pritchard uses statistical data to show that compared to the rest of New York State, the Ohio River Valley in the lower Midwest, and the country as a whole, the religiosity of the Burned-over District was typical rather than exceptional. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. They began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution. In 1837, Beecher married Eunice White Bullard. [17], As a result of the Revival of 1800, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church emerged in Kentucky and became a strong support of the revivalist movement. Ordinary people were encouraged to make a personal connection with God, instead of relying on a minister. Various scholarly theories attribute the discrepancy to a reaction to the perceived sinfulness of youthful frivolity, an inherent greater sense of religiosity in women, a communal reaction to economic insecurity, or an assertion of the self in the face of patriarchal rule. The Second and Third Awakenings were part of a much larger Romantic religious movement that was sweeping across England, Scotland, and Germany. Add new page. [36], The greatest change in women's roles stemmed from participation in newly formalized missionary and reform societies. Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "Millennium", which could entail either a literal 1,000 years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness. Postmillennialist theology dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 19th century. In 1826, during the Second Great Awakening, Protestant faiths drew new converts across the United States and a renewed focus fell upon proper social and religious behaviors. Early Baptist congregations were formed by slaves and free African Americans in South Carolina and Virginia. Stone. Lyman Beecher was a Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader, and the father of several noted leaders, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, and Catharine Beecher, and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of … The six-day gathering attracting perhaps as many as 20,000 people, although the exact number of attendees was not formally recorded. Baptists and Methodists in the South preached to slaveholders and slaves alike. "Falling for the Lord: Shame, Revivalism, and the Origins of the Second Great Awakening.". [41] The influence of the Awakening continued in the form of more secular movements. Subsequent meetings followed at the nearby Gasper River and Muddy River congregations. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Great_Awakening&oldid=6896292, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. [19], The Methodist circuit riders and local Baptist preachers made enormous gains in increasing church membership. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors. [3] As the most effective form of evangelizing during this period, revival meetings cut across geographical boundaries. In the 1830s, female moral reform societies rapidly spread across the North making it the first predominantly female social movement. Register Familypedia. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. List the 4 leaders of the Second Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. How did the Second Great Awakening influence religion? 19th Century chromolithograph of a photo of Henry Ward Beecher. Conversions and congregations started with the First Great Awakening, resulting in Baptist and Methodist preachers being authorized among slaves and free African Americans more than a decade before 1800. Following in the footsteps of his father and his five brothers, Henry Ward displayed an early interest in religion. To immigrants in the early 19th century, the land in the United States seemed pristine, edenic and undefiled – "the perfect place to recover pure, uncorrupted and original Christianity" – and the tradition-bound European churches seemed out of place in this new setting. [6] The movement quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee, and southern Ohio, as well as other regions of the United States and Canada. The people of the Second Great Awakening thought they could bring about a Golden Age in America through religion. Thanks Comments; Report He was also a co-founder of the American Temperance Society. The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with preachers. By DEBBY APPLEGATE

The Reverend Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1887) was the most popular and controversial Christian minister in the United States for more than … They did not stem entirely from the Second Great Awakening, but the revivalist doctrine and the expectation that one's conversion would lead to personal action accelerated the role of women's social benevolence work.

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