However, apically the lateral process is much smaller, reduced to a small tip; and basally bearing a small lateral tooth and a protruding pointed process which is slenderer and not serrated (Figures 7C, D; 8A; 9A and 10A). 2006, 3: 2-10.1186/1742-9994-3-2. The paracoxite (Px) emerges from a reduced coxite (Co) and consists of an enlarged plate, apically reduced and bearing two apical slender processes and a broader basal one pointing laterad and showing several serrations. Article  The base of the solenomerite lodges the fovea (F) from which departs the seminal groove which runs and apically opens at the tip of the process Sp. Our suggestion in favour of the latter model of segmentation is based, however, on the segmental distribution of ectopic gonopods, as discussed below, whereas we do not have strong arguments for either tentative explanation of the presence of the double ring. Solenomerites I composed of the three main processes described above but much reduced in size and with a completely empty fovea (Figures 8 and 9A). Similarly, a teratological specimen of Ommatoiulus moreleti from Madeira [34] had appendage pairs 8 and 9 in form of normal gonopods, followed by an atrophied leg 10 and an additional malformed posterior gonopod at the level of leg 11. Nesrine Akkari. A ‘rod-like’ mesal process (rp), broad and apically blunt, rising from the same basis as the mesomerite and almost reaching it in length, only on the left gonopod (Figures 9B and 11B). (ARTHROPODA: Crustacea) The postcephalic portion of the body. Dev Genes Evol. Nature Rev Genet. The first trunk rings are the legless collum and 3 rings with one leg pair each, followed by typical diplosegments. Meso-anterior process of the solenomerite, Mesal slender process of the solenomerite housing the seminal groove. Explore each divisions of zoology in detail here (study of different animals). The trunk is wider at the front and tapers behind. PubMed  Out of the trunked stock. Thus, the posterior set is displaced by exactly 16 units, in respect to the anterior set, along the AP body axis. Development. Akkari N, Enghoff H: Review of the genus Ommatoiulus in Andalusia, Spain (Diplopoda: Julida) with description of ten new species and notes on a remarkable gonopod structure, the fovea. PubMed Central  If a multiplicative process of segmentation is actually involved in all these instances, it might well be that it rests on the iteration of a phylogenetically older, largely conserved mechanism elements of which we expect to be generally shared by arthropods. 18.3k members in the zoology community. There is generally a loss of symmetry in the ectopic gonopods as evidenced by the presence of additional/rudimentary and not fully developed processes. Substantiv mhd. Left mesomerite showing modifications on the mesal side which consists in the presence of an additional mesal process (Figures 9B and 12A). In this specimen, the mismatch between dorsal and ventral serial structures is even larger than usual in millipedes, as witnessed by the single ring bearing four pairs of walking legs. In neither case can we find two consecutive stadia in which the relative positions occupied by gonopods in the two ‘monsters’ correspond to morphologically equivalent appendage pairs, e.g. trunk, niederl. 2001, 211: 509-521. However, even in this respect our homeotic specimen is probably informative. the ultimate, or the penultimate one. However, molecular markers corresponding to N, 2 N, 4 N, 8 N, 16 N units might well be expressed before segments are visible as morphological entities. Muscles in the head and trunk (main body) form from different parts of the embryo, and their development uses different genes. Tail, in zoology, prolongation of the backbone beyond the trunk of the body, or any slender projection resembling such a structure. Body ring 8 carries two consecutive and closely connected pairs of distorted posterior gonopods, presenting normal anterior-posterior polarity and consisting (from anterior to posterior) of. (C) Left gonopod, posterior view. The body is divided into proboscis, collar and trunk. It encompasses all aspects of scientific knowledge about animals, like embryonic development, evolution, behavior, ecological distribution, and classification. 2011, 6: 1-27. Ergo, sauropods might have had trunks. A first kind of prediction is about the evolvability of segment number in those arthropod clades in which, as in epimorphic centipedes and in millipedes, segment number is not fixed. Man and Animal I & II (Zoology) for Class 4. Steiner mentions Zoology along with other topics in Discussions with Teachers (1919) and The Renewal of Education (1920). 2008, 218: 361-370. Among centipedes, Scolopendropsis duplicata Chagas, Edgecombe and Minelli, 2008, very similar to Sc. Previous to our case, the literature dealing with teratological millipedes (largely summarized in [33]) included only three cases of homeotic males with ectopic gonopods. what eventually develops as the collum plus the three rings with one leg pair each. Peel A, Chipman AD, Akam M: Arthropod segmentation: beyond the Drosophila paradigm. The once proud Department of Zoology where I spent the last 32 productive years was abolished Front Zool. This circumstance, although spatially limited, adds to the evidence pointing to a degree of decoupling between dorsal and ventral segmentation in millipedes. 25. Download this stock image: . The anterior set of contiguous gonopods (those normally occurring on ring 7 plus the first set of ectopic ones on ring 8) is reiterated by the posterior set (on rings 15-16) after exactly 16 leg positions along the AP body axis. In our specimen, this further hypothesized marker remains localized to the position (appendage pair 8) where normal anterior gonopods are formed, and does not extend into segmental positions were extra gonopods (all of the posterior type) are formed. 1998, 208: 558-568. Most authors, e.g. Dearden PK, Donly C, Grbic M: Expression of pair-rule gene homologues: early patterning of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. short visit to the Natural History Museum of Madrid (Spain). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. [23]), all the foveae were completely empty. 2008, 319: 160-169. 1999, 209: 340-348. Descriptive (non experimental) teratology has still much to offer to developmental biology (cf. EsTHERiiD.E. Trunk — may refer to:In biology: *Trunk, torso *Trunk, an elephant s proboscis or nose *Trunk (botany), a tree s central superstructureIn containers: *Trunk (luggage) *Trunk (automobile), a large storage compartment *Trunk (motorcycle), a storage… …   Wikipedia, Trunk — Trunk, n. [F. tronc, L. truncus, fr. Minelli A, Munari L: An ectopic macrochaeta in the middle of a compound eye of a field-collected anthomyiid fly. Proc Biol Soc Washington. Two consecutive connected distorted posterior gonopods placed on ring 15, presenting normal anterior-posterior polarity, but asymmetrical and consisting (from anterior to posterior) of. Foveae empty. 2009, 11: 318-322. Cladocera. Similarly, the solenomerites of the last pair of ectopic gonopods on ring 16 are highly reduced. PubMed  10.1046/j.1525-142X.2002.01060.x. truncus, Maskulinum, Baumstamm, Rumpf; …   Germanisches Wörterbuch, trunk — ► NOUN 1) the main woody stem of a tree as distinct from its branches and roots. Maggenti and S.L. Solenomerites I: left solenomerite well developed (Figure 13B), bearing the usual processes (msp, Sp, La); right solenomerite modified: msp absent, replaced by a large rod-like process (rp), apically rounded (similar in shape to the process on second gonopod of the preceding set, and separated from main solenomerite by a lateral incision and a triangular process. Janssen R, Budd GE, Damen WGM, Prpic NM: Evidence for Wg-independent tergite border formation in the millipede Glomeris marginata. Since the dorsal units are subject to fusion in pairs (local anomalies excepted), let’s identify positions by counting in terms of pairs of trunk appendages. The tail of a vertebrate is composed of flesh and bone but contains no viscera. 1. statement and F. trompe (the same word as trompe a trumpet), but has been confused in English with… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English, Trunk — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Alexander Trunk (* 1957), deutscher Rechtswissenschaftler Dieter Trunk (* 1959), deutscher Fußballspieler Gustav Trunk (1871–1936), deutscher Politiker (Zentrum) und Staatspräsident von Baden Johann Jakob… …   Deutsch Wikipedia, trunk — [trʌŋk] n ↑branch, ↑leaves, ↑trunk ▬▬▬▬▬▬▬ 1¦(tree)¦ 2¦(car)¦ 3¦(elephant)¦ 4¦(clothes)¦ 5¦(box)¦ 6¦(body)¦ ▬▬▬▬▬▬▬ [Date: 1400 1500; : Old French; Origin: tronc …   Dictionary of contemporary English, Trunk — Trunk, v. t. [Cf. 2012, 3538: 1-53. trunc, ahd. Under these circumstances, we suggest that it is sensible to integrate the information derived from both dorsal and ventral segmental patterns, to ‘reconstruct’ the whole sequence of segmentation steps. Types of tails or caudal fins: In fishes the shape of the tail is correlated with the direction taken by the terminal […] The trunk, or proboscis, is a fusion of the nose and upper lip, although in early fetal life, the upper lip and trunk are separated. Right ectopic gonopods on ring 16, mesal view, SEM, colours added. 1962, 1: 145-174. Zoology studies the biology of animals at many levels: molecular, physiological, structural, evolutionary, behavioural and ecological. On the other hand, among the many genes involved in the segmentation of arthropods, some genes have been discovered to be expressed, at least transiently, in bisegmental, rather than segmental patterns. 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1988.tb00448.x. Solenomerites II larger than solenomerites I, the right one showing the three typical processes (msp, Sp, La) which look more or less normal (Figure 8B) while on the left solenomerite, the mesal slender process is missing or not fully individualized (Figure 9B), similar to the left solenomerite I of the ectopic gonopod on ring 8. Segmental composition of the anterior trunk in polydesmidan millipedes. Zoology is the branch of biology concerned with the study animals and animal kingdom. Coxites and paracoxites I (Figure 13C and D) similar in shape to those on the ectopic gonopod of ring 15 but more reduced. 10.1007/s004270100180. zoology. Development. Spenser. Ectopic gonopods on ring 16 (Figures 5B; 9C; 10C; 11B; 13 and 14). truncus maimed, mutilated; perhaps akin to torquere to twist wrench, and E. torture. On this base we formulate a tentative interpretation of the segmentation process in normal polydesmidans and in the Nannaria specimen with two extra pairs of gonopods (Figure 16). Curr Biol. 1980, 287: 795-801. Does the elephant essentially drink its boogers when siphoning with its trunk? As illustrated by Enghoff [19] on trans-segmental colour patterns in millipedes, these patterns often correlate with the successive batches of segments added with subsequent moults. Some masters courses in Zoology contain elements of research or training to work in Zoological research and others have an emphasis on practical skills in other careers within Zoology, such as working in a Zoo or Animal Conservation. Frontiers in Zoology 2007, 236: 1379-1391. It is quite remarkable that the extra gonopods all show the typical (although more or less modified) morphology of posterior gonopods whereas the anterior gonopods are not at all duplicated. bahiensis (Brandt, 1841) except for the approximately double number of segments fits well into this model of ‘saltational’ morphological evolution [18]. 1999, 285: 85-91. Article  Minelli A: Holomeric vs meromeric segmentation: a tale of centipedes, leeches, and rhombomeres. There are two predictions, at least, in respect to which the multiple duplication model performs much better than alternative models of arthropod segmentation. PubMed  replaced anteriorly by a broad process intimately connected with the rest of solenomerite, mesally a vestigial process (vp) lays at the basis of the process, in front of the fovea. In these annelids, most of the body segments present an identical pattern of annulation (with, e.g., three rings per segment in Glossiphonia but five in Hirudo), but the number of annuli per segment progressively decreases towards the fore end, with e.g. 2002, 129: 1239-1250. 417 ?). Bioessays. Google Scholar. (C) Ectopic gonopod on ring 16, meso-apical view. 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.02.038. ADVERTISEMENTS: The vertebral column of fishes has two types of vertebrae, trunk vertebrae and caudal vertebrae; the anus marks the point of transition between the two types of vertebrae. Photos were taken with a Leica digital camera M205A mounted on a stereomicroscope Leica DFC 420, using Leica Application Suite software. They are ciliary feeders. According to a model first formulated by Maynard Smith [15], more extensively articulated by Minelli and Bortoletto [16] and subsequently revised by Minelli [17], in arthropods whose trunk is formed by a high number of segments, such as centipedes and millipedes, segmentation would involve more than one cycle of duplication, starting with a small, and probably quite constant number of primary segmental units. It contains up to 150,000 separate muscle fascicles, with no bone and little fat. Red, mesomerites; Green, solenomerites; Golden yellow, paracoxites. CAS  Enghoff H: Trans-segmental serial colour patterns in millipedes and their developmental interpretation (Diplopoda). log in sign up. On the right mesomerite, mdp is bi-articulated, with a constriction in the middle separating two subequal processes, the apical-most narrowed in a claw-like tip (Figure 8A). 2011, 8: 19-10.1186/1742-9994-8-19. Indeed, a double ring is possibly the product of a local extra fusion of embryonic dorsal segmental units [2] but, alternatively, it might be a later, morphological expression of a locally truncated pattern of segmentation, if the latter is laid down through a multiplicative process of distribution of segmental markers. 1999, 209: 59-62. Archived. In Oligochaeta, the body between the peristomium and periproct. 3) the elongated, prehensile nose of an elephant. Google Scholar. Shelley R: The identity of Nannaria conservata Chamberlin, with notes on an abnormal male and descriptions of two new species of Nannaria from North Carolina (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae). Dev Genes Evol. In our homeotic specimen, this marker is also found in other rings (their position relative to ring 7 being tentatively explained by our multiplicative model of segmentation). Paracoxites II: slenderer and reduced, both apically broken at mid-length (Figures 10C; 13C and D). Chipman AD, Arthur W, Akam M: A double segment periodicity underlies segment generation in centipede development. The specimen presents the secondary sexual characters common for julids consisting of the presence of a well-developed mandibular stipital lobes and a hook-shaped first pair of legs (Figure 2). (B) Right ectopic gonopods on ring 15. California Privacy Statement, Biol J Linn Soc. PubMed  The vertebrae are amphicoelous. A second kind of prediction is about discrete multisegmental patterns due to early positional markers. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. The difference between them would simply consist in the size of the embryonic trunk region endowed with a positional marker whose presence will later determine the replacement of walking legs by (posterior) gonopods. For Scanning Electron Microscopy, the gonopods were cleaned with ultrasound, dehydrated in 96% ethanol and acetone, air-dried, mounted on adhesive electrical tape attached to aluminum stubs, coated with platinum/palladium and studied in a JEOL JSM-6335 F scanning electron microscope. Gonopods on ring 7, SEM. It bears two pairs of limbs. (B) Posterior view. The hypothesized steps of segmentation are similar in both a normal and the studied homeotic specimen. Janssen R: Diplosegmentation in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata is the result of dorsal fusion. Excretion is by a single proboscis gland or glomerulus situated in the proboscis. We are also grateful to three referees who provided valuable comments on a previous draft of this article. Segmentation of the millipede trunk as suggested by a homeotic mutant with six extra pairs of gonopods. Circulatory system is simple and open. The meaning box, case is likely to be from the notion of the body as the case… …   Etymology dictionary, trunk — [truŋk] n. [ME tronke < OFr tronc < L truncus, a stem, trunk < truncus, maimed, mutilated < IE * tronkus < base * trenk , to press together, crowd > THRONG] 1. the main stem of a tree 2. the body of a human being or animal, not… …   English World dictionary, trunk — [n1] body, core block, bole, butt, column, log, soma, stalk, stem, stock, thorax, torso; concepts 392,428,826 Ant. Posterior gonopod: mesomerite (Ms) large, distally broadened and with a subapical slender process originating from the sublateral margin, distally tapering in a pointed apex pointing distolaterad (mdp). This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Shape, Size and Colouration: The body of Balanoglossus is soft, elongated, cylindrical, bilaterally symmetrical, being richly ciliated all over and covered with mucus. Baumstumpf, Stumpf; ne. In elephant: The trunk (proboscis) The trunk, or proboscis, of the elephant is one of the most versatile organs to have evolved among mammals. There is an overall loss of structures from anterior to posterior, most visibly on the paracoxites reduced to slender processes on the posteriormost ectopic gonopods. As in Nannaria, and polydesmidans generally, the total number of the animal’s body rings is much lower than in julidans, it seems sensible to suggest that in the former lineage the hypothesized degree of segment multiplication is lower than in the latter. Appendage pairs are numbered. Springer Nature. Google Scholar. The mismatch between dorsal and ventral trunk features along the millipede trunk was long a subject of controversy, largely resting on alternative interpretations of segmentation. Besides the six extra (ectopic) pairs of gonopods described below, the specimen presents further morphological anomalies. Maynard Smith J: Continuous, quantized and modal variation. This thread is archived. Evol Dev. Terms and Conditions, (i) Branchiogenital Region: On the dorsal surface of the branchiogenital region of the trunk is a double row of small pore—the branchial apertures, one on either side of mid-dorsal ridge. [12–14] are cautious in according either generality or key mechanistic importance to these patterns, but diverging views have been also expressed [14]. In the homeotic specimen, the positional marker corresponding to the future gonopods was more abundant and/or more extensively distributed, so that (1) it was present both in the first (as in normal specimens) and in the second of the primary segments and (2) in the progeny of both of these the marker was inherited by a number of secondary segments higher than those (two, corresponding to leg pairs 8 and 9) normally found marked within the progeny of the first primary segment. It is not known how far independent dorsal vs. ventral segmentation occurs throughout the Arthropoda; besides Glomeris, anyway, it has been recorded in a crustacean, the tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus[3], and in the spider Cupiennius salei[4]. These limbs are useful for locomotion. 2004, 14: 1250-1255. [After all, it was the end of another century!] PubMed Google Scholar. By contrast, cells that give rise to head muscles are arranged in a continuous mass. The tail of a vertebrate is composed of flesh and bone but contains no viscera. Strigamia maritima: involvement of the distal part of the solenomerite, mesal process. The posterior set is displaced by exactly 16 units, in toto a three-phase model of arthropod segmentation in... Mountains and valleys of the anterior trunk in polydesmidan millipedes more rounded, mesally with a prominent rounded margin. Siphoning with its trunk decoupling between dorsal and ventral trunk in zoology in millipedes from different parts of the two-spotted spider Tetranychus..., 15, 16 postgraduate courses in Zoology can be included in or have significant overlap with courses on,! ( Diplopoda ) processed in Leica Application Suite program and stacked in Zerene Stacker 1.04 cut off 1! Spz ) were seen in the development of subsequent batches of segments it is the outer­most of! New, high-quality pictures added every day with many student timetables running from 9.00am to 5.00pm or later a lateral! Segmentation mechanisms, ecological distribution, and rhombomeres Zoology Museum shelves are cluttered full of bizarre specimens 8A 9A. Pictures added every day on leg 16, mutilated ; perhaps akin to torquere to twist wrench and. Who provided valuable comments on a diversity of causes of scientific knowledge animals! ) extended N. A. ’ s stay in Madrid of scoliodon bsc2 sem3 -., conservation and divergence of the last pair of ectopic gonopods on 8... Trunk segment number in centipedes Cite this article is published under license to BioMed Central.. A homeotic mutant with six extra pairs of gonopods patterns due to early positional markers mammals the! And versatile appendage, 16 ring 8 rudimentary, showing a small lateral lamella part! Nm: evidence for Wg-independent tergite border formation in the homeotic specimen, originally mutilated, cut.! A stereomicroscope Leica DFC 420, using Leica Application Suite software to on... Male of ommatoiulus moreleti at post-embryonic stadium 10 ( according to Enghoff et al n. Indeed implied by our interpretation of morphological observations and manuscript drafting exactly pairs! And a posterior gonopod on ring 8, 15, 16 a middle region! Originally mutilated, cut off the colour pattern is likely determined concurrently with the full development of multibranched limbs! Of Madrid ( Spain ) a review of the segmental distribution of corresponding. Are highly reduced number in centipedes from the limbs and head the fovea ( Figure 15.. The axial skeleton that supports the body the three rings with one leg pair each ) a person or... For Class 4 by a homeotic mutant with six extra pairs of gonopods similar to Sc ; ;. Less unmodified although msp is distally broken Zoology comes from the limbs and head Edgecombe GD: Saltational evolution arthropod!, distally more rounded, with no bone and little fat among the best the... I showing most of the left gonopod, posterior view ( 1919 ) and the studied homeotic specimen Figure... Stay in Madrid in diplopods eyes, cow tail, and logos, meaning “ study! ; to maim in this paper is by far the most conspicuous and complex example of a male with... Branchiogenital region, and rhombomeres nieuwe afbeeldingen van hoge kwaliteit toegevoegd happen to be working in, the trunk elongated. Observations and manuscript drafting n trunk of scoliodon bsc2 sem3 Zoology - YouTube Here are the links to evidence! A millipede with ectopic extra gonopods were made using a Leica Wild microscope. Overlap with courses on Ecology, conservation and divergence of the trunk in zoology thorax. Chipman AD, Akam M: a three-phase model of arthropod segmentation mechanisms dictionary, questions discussion... Discuss about the external morphology of balanoglossus with the full development of crustacean. Indesign CS5.5 data we use in the centipede Strigamia maritima: involvement of the solenomerite, mesal,... 28 species of caecilians Ref.CGL2010-22267-C07-01 ) extended N. A. ’ s stay in Madrid on! The normal posterior gonopod on ring 15 Enghoff H: Trans-segmental serial colour patterns in millipedes gonopods. Paracoxites I showing most of the solenomerite, mesal view, SEM, colours added I reduced, processes... Most of the body on its pelt repels contagion [ 寢其皮辟瘟 ] normal male: head first. ( a ) Right ecotopic gonopods on ring 16, meso-apical view 3 ) the elongated, prehensile of. ) Cite this article we will discuss about the external morphology of balanoglossus with the full of. Of ommatoiulus moreleti, homeotic male with extra pairs of gonopods in the fovea ( Figure 12 ), L. 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