Since late July 2007 the peace process in Mindanao between Government Republic of Philippines (GRP) and Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) is passing through a turbulent and testing time after a fire fight on July 10, 2007 in Barangay (lowest administrative unit) Guinanta, Al Barakah in Basilan involving the armed forces of both parties that resulted in casualties on both sides. Jose Maria Sison, a student activist in Manila, established the CPP in 1968 after being expelled from the existing Communist party, the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (PKP). Conflict theory in sociology describes society’s tendency to change and develop due to perpetual conflict between classes. Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Ethno-Religious War or Economic Conflict? A referendum asked the municipalities and provinces with significant Muslim populations in Mindanao if they wished to join an “Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao” (ARMM) which had originally already been created in 1990. Thousands of civilians were displaced in this mini-war and many are yet to return to their homes. The Philippines are considered a close ally of President Bush’s “war against terror”. There is heavy presence of armed actors in their respective allocated areas. Evidence is emerging of increased US and Australian military support for the government of Rodrigo Duterte and the Philippine military. Under Article 15, the Philippines follows the nationality theory. This 1-day Conflict Management Seminar has a mixture of theory and practical exercises designed to create more effective outcomes. Conflict and instability – insurgent groups and drivers Insurgent groups The report strongly endorsed for the immediate establishment of Joint Assistance Monitoring Team (JMAT) structure in Basilan to maintain ceasefire and further prevent the outbreak of violence.  More than 150,000 have been estimated to have been killed in conflicts in Central and Western Mindanao over the past five decades. There has been an acute sense of political and cultural alienation, and economic marginalisation. Title: The Culture of Conflict in Philippines. The Moro conflict is a multifaceted, highly complex matter, emanating from centuries of profound societal fragmentation and divisions. The political rise of traditional feudal chieftains (Datus) in the last years in some provinces of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) has intermeshed clan conflicts (Rido) with the larger peace process between the GRP, the MILF and the MNLF. The conflict is also associated with the National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP), which serves as the political wing of the CPP. The ray of hope is a well organised and networked civil society that aims to end the cycle of violence and believes that proactive action can build peace with justice. CSOs produced series of press statement urging both parties to exercise maximum restraints and resolve Basilan crisis through dialogue and other peaceful means. At the end of August 2007, the official peace processes (GRP-MILF & GRP-MNLF) are lingering in a state of uncertainty and with extended delays in the resumption of talks. It is one of the four paradigms of sociology, which include functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and feminism.Examples of social conflict theory can be found in … Herbert, S. (2019).  The Philippines is in the midst of a “human rights crisis” following President Duterte’s election in 2016 and the initiation of his war on drugs (Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2018). The armed conflict in the North began already in 1946 when an already existing communist army started to fight the Philippine government until 1954. Family rights and All together, between 400,000 and 1 million people have been internally displaced (though most have returned by now) because of the conflicts, and 160,000 died (40,000 in the North, 120,000 in the South). These incidents often happen in close proximity to NP field offices and in their radius of work. Many provinces of Mindanao in which NP has plans of working have been declared to have had “failed elections”. The talks between GRP and MILF were scheduled for after the elections, but mistrust arose with the sudden resignation of the Chair of the GRP Peace Panel. violence vary from place to place and individual to individual”. Since the municipalities of some of these regions are predominantly Christian, some of the cities are not in ARMM, including Cotabato City, Maguindanao, which is the headquarters of the ARMM. Elections dominated the political space for the last few months. Theories on Personal Law: 1. Poverty and inequality in the Philippines remains a challenge. In the Philippines, where more than a quarter of the country's population of 92.3 million lives below the poverty line, economic and social inequality is a major problem. We Already Had An Excellent Public School System Before The Americans Came. These resolutions provide the policy frame and guidance for the promotion and protection of women’s rights in conflict and post-conflict situations. The current situation is complex and dynamic, with an “increasingly fragmented array of violent extremist organizations” (TNC, 2019). Overall, the elections fortified the power of provincial feudal elites and raised the possibilities of emergence of local ‘third parties’ to the peace processes. This draws on the reality that the Southwestern Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago are the poorest provinces in the Philippines, and one of Southeast Asia’s least developed regions. The markers of globalisation such as the imperatives of economic liberalisation, fiscal reform, and migratory flows, which is one of tidal waves of global information, have restructured social relations existing all over the world. The armed conflict in the North began already in 1946 when an already existing communist army started to fight the Philippine government until 1954. Although the ceasefire in Midsayap (North Cotabato) is holding in mid 2007, and most of the IDPs have returned to their respective homes, fear of renewed violence is widespread. Civil conflict in the Philippines is an ongoing conflict involving two coinciding insurgencies in the modern history of the country:. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies. K4D Helpdesk Report 648. Militants move easily between violent extremism, insurgency and criminality. Festival Images migrantes "Du migrant au sujet politique", Drawing on the move: Atelier participatif, Repenser le monde avec Césaire, Fanon et Glissant, Nonviolent Peaceforce in action: an overview. Small skirmishes continue in this area because the army is still chasing some enemy combatants. Dossier : This is due to not everyone starting on equal grounds, not everyone having the same goals and not everyone having the same attitudes and morals. There have been two guerrilla wars going on for several decades. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire makes Philippines extremely vulnerable to natural disasters, especially earthquakes, cyclones, and volcanic hazards. The proactive civil society organizations (CSOs) of Mindanao vehemently condemned the July 10 Basilan incident and exerted joint efforts to save the peace process. These cookies do not identify you personally. Here, LGUs are less capable of projecting themselves as independent forces with their own vested interests. There are growing concerns about the implementation of the 1996 Peace Agreement between the GRP and Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). Conflict theory, first purported by Karl Marx, is a theory that society is in a state of perpetual conflict because of competition for limited resources. On 7 February 2005, a new armed conflict erupted in the area of the Sulu islands (Western Mindanao) between MNLF and government troops. Civilian grievances regarding protection have not been addressed and they continue to be a cause of concern. Conflict theory, based upon society’s obsession with power and fear of change, is the most fitting theory in regards to the education system. Governance, social development, conflict and humanitarian knowledge services. During the Spanish-American War of 1898, the United States hoped to assist Cubans and Filipinos in their ongoing efforts at freedom from Spanish colonial rule. Civilians are usually not targeted in the conflicts but evacuated before serious fighting begins, and their camps are not attacked (although in Pikit in 2003 a grenade hit by accident the roof of a gymnasium where IDPs stayed).  There have been at least three main peace agreements between the government and different insurgent groups over history, but none have delivered a sustainable peace yet. The conflict continues to the present day. A wide range of drivers and grievances are identified in the literature, however, importantly, ICG (2019) highlights that “generalisations can be misleading because motivations for participation in This conflict management seminar helps you understand that the solution lies with you, not them. The best known about him is his theory of Class Conflict or just simply Conflict Theory. Conflict profile  The conflict has been a longstanding feature of the Philippines, with two long-running insurgencies, and a number of other types of conflict and violence. The main armed groups in Mindanao however have been Muslim guerrillas who fight for self-determination of the ‘Muslim Nation’ (=’Bangsamoro’) in Mindanao. At present five provinces form the ARMM: Lanao del Sur and Maguindanao in Central Mindanao, as well as the islands Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi in Western Mindanao.  Religious education and leaders – Extremist preachers in the Philippines have played an important role in recruiting insurgents from Islamic education institutions, informing and leading extremist cells, and in teaching extremist views. Certain highly sensitive parts of Central and Western Mindanao are inaccessible or off-limits for human rights defenders and legal counsels due to the obstructions posed by various armed parties and lawless groups.  Poverty, lack of opportunities, land dispossession and marginalisation – A key driver of violent extremism in Mindanao is longstanding historical grievances against the national government, this especially draws on feelings that the Muslim minority population has been marginalised by the dominant Christian population. Civilians and communities that have undergone abuses are unable to share their grievances with relevant sources of help because of fear of retribution and absence of active human rights networks on the ground. Civil society in Mindanao is playing a highly commendable and constructive role on its part to not let the ongoing peace process slip into disarray. Post-independence (in 1946) The Philippines was relatively stable with steady economic growth (Asia Foundation, 2017). Philippines, even though living abroad. Human rights, academic freedom and self-determination in a society of collective awareness is … Although MNLF and MILF have a Coordination Committee to sort out differences and strengthen ties, its operational structure has loopholes through which violence emanates. Nonviolent Peaceforce Philippines supported the efforts of its partners in Mindanao by sending its Sulu team along with Communication Officer and Project Director to Basilan for more than two weeks, and publishing two statements written by them. Family feuds with an ethos of revenge are also an important issue especially in Muslim areas. 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