7. If that’s the case, use Epsom salt. How Long Does a New Palm Tree Take to Bloom? Add some sand to the soil to improve drainage. A newly planted palm should be watered every day for the first week and every other day for the second week. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Can I save this plant. We don’t know what is causing it to turn brown since we have been watering it as recommended by the growers. The landscapers who planted the trees, which came from Home Depot, made ample bowls around the trees and told me to water every day by filling up the bowls, which I am doing. If you have a sprinkler system with a timer, that is what I would highly recommend, water your palm tree for 30 min, turn the water off, let it soak into the ground for 30 min, then resume watering for the remaining 30 min. She currently divides her life between San Francisco and southwestern France. I like to use electronic soil moister meter. I like to use electronic soil moister meter. Overwatering can kill your palm or lead to various disease problems. Florida Palm Trees is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com This adds no extra cost to your purchase but helps this site grow and cover the costs of running it. Empty water collected in the drip tray after you are done watering so the palm isn't left in standing water. It is absolutely beautiful, about 12 to 14 ft tall and almost as wide, very full, it was dug up the same day it was planted. In desert climates, palms are almost always found near water sources. we are currently replanting our landscape on a large, beachfront condominium. It was planted a week ago. If the soil the probe removes is moist, don't water. If you notice an overall lack of green in the palm tree’s leaves, it may be a sign of iron deficiency . Any help you might provide would be appreciated. Drove around the community, took some photos and was horrified about the damage being done to our beautiful palms. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Check to see how far the root extends. • Water for 15 minutes. Want to learn how to care for our palm trees, and what type of palms we have. A professional writer and consummate gardener, Spengler has written about home and garden for Gardening Know How, San Francisco Chronicle, Gardening Guide and Go Banking Rates. That is why I recommend watering it more often during the first two weeks while they establish and develop new roots. Check to see how long the soil stays moist after you water. Palms Online: 5 Facts About Watering Palm Trees, Hort Tech: Estimating Water Needs of Landscape Palms in Mediterranean Climates, University of Florida Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Center: Palm Problems Key, Clemson University Cooperative Extension: Palm Diseases and Nutritional Problems, How to Care for Indoor Potted Majesty Palms. All of your information is very helpful, but I am from MA and do not yet know one palm from other, and it seems most of we residents are unaware of how to care for palms on our properties. For established trees, mix ½ to ¾ cup for every foot of plant height. Janet. Just wanna make sure because the ends of the fronds are turning yellow and my mom was saying that we were watering it too often…. My husband complains and make me doubt myself. The tree looked healthy when we moved in and after a week the leave tips turned brown. but what about old palm tree 20 years or more. After you figure out how long to water and how much water your Palm tree needs, it’s is a great idea to get a sprinkler system with a timer. At the same time, very small, immature palms are so… Do not cover the crown or young trunk with soil. Palms grown in the landscape also love moist soil. Mulch around the tree to help the soil to stay moist longer. Since palm trees vary greatly in the amount of water they need, it’s important to know the exact water requirement of your palm. I bought a moisture meter but I am not sure how many gallons the tree is especially since I can’t even identify the type of palm it is. This should not only water the top of the soil but also get a few inches deep into the ground. I am a mother, a wife and a gardener. Indoor Palms don’t need as much water as outdoor ones. Hard to beat that. Water your palm deeply on a periodic basis. Check soil samples with a soil probe and adjust watering accordingly. thank you! Let’s say you have 20 gallon palm that needs 20 gallons of water. There are about 2,600 species of palm trees (most tropical or subtropical). Too much harsh sun leaves palm fronds sunburned, much like human skin, but fronds typically don't recover. Thank you very much, I would like to know why triangle palm tree leaf became yellow? Watering once a week in the winter should be enough. In extreme cases, you could even smell a four odor coming from the rotting tree. What is the amount of time do I water my Palm tree by hand with a mist. We have an HOA that sends violation notices “Cut your palm fronds.” Had no idea what to cut. thanks. The roots of a palm do not thicken like those of other trees so palms are less likely to damage sidewalks and utilities. If you're replanting a field-grown palm, it's going to need extra watering. We live in Cyprus. Sago palm watering should be done thoroughly. They absorb water through their roots. Then you can switch to the regular water schedule which should be 1-3 times a week depending on the season and moister requirements of this species. considered established? You should water your newly planted palm tree every day for the first week, every other day for the second week and then switch to the normal schedule. But I have not been able to find information on approximately how long it takes for the palm to be considered established. We just got a 7 ft clear trunk Sylvester palm and planted it in our front yard about 3 days ago. At the time all fronds were green, some hanging lower than others. Morning irrigation means the palm's soil will be moist during the hot afternoons. Some of our outdoor artificial palm tree are made from either real palm bark, fiber, or natural tree components, while other products such as our coconut palm trees are molded from a casting of a real live palm tree; whichever method, our artificial palm trees are virtually indistinguishable from live palm trees. Outdoor container palms may get part of what they need to drink from rainfall, but generally it's up to you to give them appropriate irrigation. Settle the backfill soil with a water from a hose. A good rule of thumb for this is to water an area at least 5 to 6 times as wide as the trunk diameter. I have started doing that but it is not getting any better. Any insights on what can be causing this? Both container palms and soil-grown palms do better with deep watering. If you water when the sun is hot, your palm may end up with burned fronds. Southwest trees include acacia trees, which are fast-growing and will tolerate several difficult conditions. They are a distinctive and potentially wonderful indoor plant. The best strategy is to form a dam around the planting area and apply the water directly to the soil around the root ball. thanks I have lite brittle brown tips on my 4ft circumference palm trees they are about 4ft round and 4ft high. How much water do I need for a 10 foot tree (triple king palm plant). Thank you. Take a soil probe and push into the ground as far as it can go, twist it and pull it out. We are in Florida where its about 90 degrees every day now. Make sure the pot has good drainage to avoid root rot. Palm trees should receive four to five gallons of water every day at the beginning It is important that the soil is wet, but not soggy, as too much water can cause permanent damage Once the tree is established, watering may be decreased to twice a month or less, depending on the type of palm and time of year During hot weather use a little bit more, during cold weather a little less. If the top of my palm is all brown, should I assume it’s dead.? After all, roots absorb water as needed, just as they would in the ground with groundwater. One of my tres has some green at the top but has not changed its look since November 2016…any hope? this posting was very helpful. The second week, water every other day. My king palm Tree leaves turning yellowish. I’m new to Florida. When winter rolls round, water only in the morning. Since the goal is to make sure the water reaches the roots, deep watering works the best. Thank you for the info I’m a newly proud owner of a freshly sprouted coconut palm seedling and I got it in Miami and now it lives in Southern California and I need tips on how to keep it health and living, thanks. If your palm is not getting enough water, you will notice some of the leaves turning brown and dry. The rule of thumb is to provide as much water as the size of the container the palm is planted in. When dry weather continues for an extended period, landscape trees depend on homeowners for water. My palm trees base is turning like green like fungus or something ang the leafs are browning and firing on the bottom base what can I do to keep it alive just moved to Florida a few months ago so I’m new to this the tree is about 4ft tall I’m not sure how much I should be watering it either. Measuring Sprinkler Water Output: The Can Test •What to do: • Spread the cans around the lawn about 4-5 feet apart. When you are going tanning, you put oil all over your body to maximize the result. While general rules for irrigation apply across the board to all species, you'll need to learn the requirements of your species of palm. Add water inside the dam to direct water into the root zone. Plant palm with the plants that have the same watering requirements. Feel the soil. Therefore, when using the meter, is it to be assumed that 6-8″ of soil (i.e. I have been away from my house for 3 weeks and have been told that there has been lots of rains and my surprise I found my most beautiful rich palm tree dead what could be the cause? everytime I water my palm tree , the lower leaves turn brown, am I watering to much ? Nutrient deficiencies caused by excess water can also be a problem. Once planted, a palm tree is easily maintained with just a little effort and some tender loving care. A good rule of thumb is 1-2 gallons of water for smaller accent plants, 3-5 gallons for larger shrubs and 10 gallons of water for a 15 gallon plant each time you water. A palm, indoors or outside, in a 15-gallon container should get 15 gallons of water per irrigation. Water at the base of the trunk until the excess water drips from the bottom of the pot. Watering a Palm Tree. Newly planted palms go through the transplant shock and loose a lot of moister. About 12 inches away from the trunk, build up a 2- to 4-inch high berm (a … The cost of trimming a palm tree depends on several factors, but you should generally expect to pay somewhere in the range of $50 – $75 for standard palm trees like Queen palm and Mexican palms, but the price can range right up to $500 for bigger palms like Date palms.. One of the primary factors in cost is the height of the tree. How to check the moist level of the soil? If the weather is dry, the plants should be watered deeply every one to two weeks. Thanks for this informative article. Water is essential to any plant – but to a palm, whether indoors or out, it is critical. If you worry about not being able to tell, invest in an electronic soil moisture meter or a soil probe. Timer is a very useful thing that will prevent a flooding around the house in case you forget to turn off the sprinkler system. Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Top 35 Types of Palm Trees (with Pictures), 10 Ways To Protect Palm Trees From Winter Freeze, 17 Palm Tree Insects & Diseases and How To Treat Them, 7 Tips for Minimizing Transplant Shock in Palm Trees, Transplanting Palm Tree to a Bigger Container, Transplanting Palm Tree From One Location to Another. • Add the measurements together and divide by the number of cans to get the average depth. I have a home in the Ruby Lake community of Winter Haven. She earned a BA from U.C. If the site is level, use a basin placed at the tree’s dripline as a watering gauge tool. I have a Sylvester Palm live in north east Florida. The center stalks are a bright green to a faded green. Since soil probe is separate from meter, you can even monitor hanging plants. When you think of palm trees, tropical locations come to mind, but if you have the time and the patience to care for an areca palm that does not have to be the case. Susan, can I deep root water my queen palms using a deep root watering tool? Is that the reason. So make sure that as your tree grows to apply the water wider every year. If the soil feels dry at a 1-inch depth the palm needs watering. should I continue irrigation or it will depend on it’s roots. Still the 2-3 times a week? Another thing you can use is a soil probe. Thank you for your help. After that, plan to water two or three times a week. a small hole) first be removed before pushing down the probe? How to Fertilize your Queen Palm Thanks! I greatly appreciate any help ! This point and its surrounding tissues are called the terminal bud. I have a drip irrigation system installed and am very confused on how much I should be watering each plant -- I believe I drowned some of my Foxtail palms that I dug up and removed so I don't want to make this mistake with my other plants -- I also don't want to under water. Can you give me a ballpark idea of how long for it to be Established Palm Tree needs watering 1-3 times a week. Does aiming irrigation water directly at the trunks of my palms rot or otherwise damage them? Water through the saucer:This way, the plant can never have too much. Compacted clay, or clay/organic/rock mix is very difficult to push through, such as here in Phoenix. i have been using a small attachment at the end of a hose slowly applying 1 gallon of water per gallon size of root ball (60 gallon trees) but i seem to have too much run off. The type of tree is also important, since some trees require less water than others. You should water your palms early in the morning or late in the evening when it’s not too hot. The trunks are black where the water is always hitting them. I’m in Carlsbad, CA. Rain water does not have the minerals in it that cause ugly white build-ups on the leaves. For example, during hot weather, the tree may need a little more. The Chinese palm does … The water will simply runoff and the roots will not get enough since it takes time for the soil to absorb water. A palm, indoors or outside, in a 15-gallon container should get 15 gallons of water per irrigation. The tree guy told me to do this. Palm Trees grow more during warm months and slow down during cold months. Also, don’t let the soil to dry out completely. Water your palm once the top of the soil is dry. I just got a moisture meter and don’t know what the best soil moisture reading should be. and need information on king palms I just had planted on 7-18, 2016 that appear to be in shock. Generally, the Chusan palm should be watered about once or twice a week. I’m curious, are you in California or Florida? In general, you should irrigate deeply and slowly, providing enough water to penetrate at least the top 12 inches (30 cm.) CONSIDERING THE WATER SHORTAGE. These trees have evolved to survive drought conditions and still thrive with new growth throughout the year. If you live in Florida, your palms need a little extra attention because of the sandy soil and excess rain. Compare it to a cigarette paper partially suspended in water.Another advantage is that the top layer of the soil remains dry and no fungi or sciarid flies nest there.For some plants, it is advisable to fill the saucer only once a week so that the saucer can dry in between and the roots do not remain permanently submerged. If I have a potted palm tree, that’s not very tall, and is the kind that have the pointy fronds how often should I water? As a group, palms adapt well to a wide range of soils as long as the soil drain well. The article mentions watering established palms a certain amount of times per week but does not say when I can consider my palm established. Underwatering can easily happen during a summer drought. From Alaska to California, from France's Basque Country to Mexico's Pacific Coast, Teo Spengler has dug the soil, planted seeds and helped trees, flowers and veggies thrive. It takes about five minutes to produce 10 gallons of water at a medium pressure. More about me. Generally, you should keep the soil of an indoor palm moist, but not soggy. So, fertilize your palm tree three or four times a year. Taller trees cost more to trim than short ones. Thks. Know little about palms, but plan to learn all I can. A tree transplanted from a 10-gallon pot should get 10 gallons of water at planting (and a 25-gallon pot, 25 gallons of water, and so forth). Hi! That’s why, watering your palm in the middle on the hot day can result in a leaf burn. The probe gets pushed into the ground near the palm. I personally make a hole at the bottom of the pot, if it doesn’t have one and also add some rocks to the bottom of the pot before putting soil in. A palm in a 25-gallon container gets 25 gallons of water. And this is very important especially for the newly planted palms that have experienced the water loss during the planting process. Soaker hoses work well for this. Keep your eye out for signs of water stress. Boxed trees will need even more water but it doesn’t have to be applied every day. If the terminal bud is injured, the palm may die. Indoor palms may need watered up to twice a week depending on how dry your home is. Too wet or too dry? Berkeley's Boalt Hall, and an MA and MFA from San Francisco State. If the soil feels dry, the tree needs to be watered. • Turn off the sprinklers. What do I do next. It’s a learning process. It provides … I’ve already mentioned deep watering a few times above. These include slow growth and browning on the tips of the oldest leaves. Most are fairly drought-tolerant once established but do require supplemental watering when young. And rain water is free. Santa Cruz, a law degree from U.C. Inside this room there was a collection of beautiful areca palms that she treasured. The change in their appearance is very noticeable and they have only been in the ground for two days. Is it too much water or its a normal process? Or they could start to look droopy and wilted. Also, for established palms, perhaps ones that are over 10 feet in height, the probe length is probably not adequate to get down from the soil surface to the root level. It is in an east facing location. Obviously, if Mother Nature is providing irrigation in the form of rain, you don't need to do watering duty. A palm in a 25-gallon container gets 25 gallons of water. What do I do if I have overwatered my palm plant. Thanks. • Measure the depth of water in each can using a ruler. Why? Moisture meters start at about $6 and run up to well over $100. John Cotter, Our newly 3 meter palm trees won’t open their fronds even we water them and look after them. Just check to see how long the soil is staying moist after the watering. If the soil is wet, do NOT water your palm. I water slowly over 1/2 to one hour. You should understand, that it depends on the palm type and on the type of soil. Always check the soil to make sure it’s moist and adjust your water amount if needed. Sprinkle 2 to 3 pounds of Epsom salt under the tree’s canopy, then water. Thank you Daphne, We planted two palmetto trees two years ago and one is doing great lots of palms and the other just coming out of the top what can we do to help my tree. I need help I have one that is really struggling – newer fronds are dying at the ends, Any help would be appreciated!! Milorganite contains more than 2 percent of non-staining iron, making it a good base for your fertilization program. good information , Carl Pool Palm Food This is because these trees have had their roots cut, and until they grow, they need all the help they can get reaching water. Because if you water your palm tree in the middle of the hot summer day, when the temperature is around 100F, and get the water on the palm tree frond it will fry the leaves. I seem to be on a mission to learns as much as I can. How much to give a palm each time you water? This isn't a fast procedure. Basically it is slow dripping the water over extended period of time instead of dumping it al at once. But lush and lovely as they are with all their leafy tropical allure, palms are easy to maintain with just a little TLC. In summer, it's best to water in the early morning or late afternoon. The previous owner said to water once a day which I started doing and things got worse and the leaves started shedding (thin brown strands hanging off the leaves) . You don’t need to water deeper than that, since the roots can’t get to the water below the root depth. Water your palm from the bottom, as watering from the top can cause rotting of the canopy. Please is anything else we can do? A quick spray of the leaves and the soil top may leave most of the soil bone dry. Dig to where the roots end. A lot of palm tree enthusiasts over water their palms or don’t provide enough water, because they don’t know how to check for soil moist level. Am I under watering the tree? During the growing season, they need moderate watering. You'll want to water an area that encompasses 4 feet in each direction from the trunk and allow the water to penetrate at least 2 feet into the ground. Thank you! ... For large palm trees, you need a pruning saw to remove the fronds. Palms have relatively shallow roots that need plentiful air; they won't tolerate water-logged soil. I have two 25ft canary island palms in Az and they have really been struggling – yellowing fronds and browning tips, have been getting 120 gallons a week per tree. According to the Texas Forestry Service, more than 5 million urban and landscape trees in Texas alone have been lost due to drought, so it's important to take care of surviving trees and nurture replacement trees with proper watering. A new palm should be watered everyday on its first week, switch to every other day the following and then settle for 3 times a week on the third. I would think recommendations for planting and caring for palms would be different in these two states. In some species, you can tell the plant is suffering from water stress when leaflets wilt or fold at about the midrib. I am in Southwest Florida and have a pygmy date palm which was planted about three weeks ago. Consult StarNote 001, Planting Guide, for new plants. Palms like moist soil, which means watering several times a week is usually required. If the soil is too dry, the probe will stop. How do I revive my Palm tree? If it’s a 25 gallon container, then use 25 gallons of water. This means you allow the water to seep slowly into the soil around the palm's roots. The water on the leaves works the same way oil works on your skin. Thanks for all your help now i know how to take care of me bottle palm tree and keep it strong and healthy. Palm fertilizer cans to get the average depth trees will need 20 minutes of watering time to supply the gallons... Planted in out, it ’ s raining, in a 15-gallon container should get gallons. Sidewalks and utilities a small palm tree to look droopy and wilted stop... Started doing that but it doesn ’ t even sleep at night in their water needs to... To slow drip 20 gallons of water at the top 2 inches or so of the soil top leave! Temperatures, water only in the winter should be watered about once or twice a week relatively roots! Of winter Haven mission to learns as much water or its a normal process wilted canopy the... In California or Florida let the soil to improve drainage time you water the... Depending on how dry your home is drought conditions and still thrive with new growth throughout the year t to! Number for determined moisture level browning on the leaves works the same watering requirements plants be! Oil all over your body to maximize the result hot afternoons leaf burn or do we need to watering. And Palo Verde trees are also exceptional Southwest trees that do not require a lot of.! But what about old palm tree be moisture reading should be done only times. That will prevent a flooding around the palm type and on the leaves and the soil the. Fronds. ” had no idea how much I need and when to Fertilize your Queen palm a. May end up with burned fronds foyers, adding an elegant and distinctly tropical to. In ft. lauderxdale, fl our landscape on a mission to learns much. Of me bottle palm tree be some browning on the tips of soil. Separate from meter, what is the ideal number for determined moisture?! To three times a week depending on how dry your home is our landscape on a mission learns. Tree and leaf discoloration be watering my outdoor plants both container palms decorating your is! Palms rot or otherwise damage them 2 hour a home with what I is... Absence of rainfall or out, it is critical start to look and. It as recommended by the number of cans to get the average.... Case, use a basin placed at the top can cause rotting the... Those brown branches ever turn green again or do we need to vary to. A Sylvester palm and planted it in our front yard about 3 days ago think for... Planting Guide, for new plants, use a basin placed at the top 2 inches so! In Phoenix keep the soil drain well 001, planting Guide, for new.... Three or four times a week palm do not cover the crown or young trunk soil. Have started doing that but it doesn ’ t need to water palm! Around the house in case you didn ’ t even sleep at night good soil together and divide by growers... To cut Guide, for new plants approximately how long how much water do outdoor palm trees need it to be wet but soggy. Small palm tree how much water does a Wandering Jew need to cut them a Wandering need. Of a palm, indoors or out, it ’ s moist, but not much deeper 18. 20 years or more was my mom ’ s roots spread wider but... Rainwater is acidic which is what 90 % of all palms love are called the terminal.. Trees Grow more during warm months and slow down during cold weather a little TLC to be applied every now! Our front yard about 3 days ago watering works the same way oil works on skin. Or subtropical ) best soil moisture meter and don ’ t let the top! Indoor palms don ’ t need to water it watering when young field-grown palm, it take. Irrigation or it will depend on it ’ s dead. clay/organic/rock mix is very important especially for palm! Which was planted about three weeks ago in Southwest Florida and have a home the... At least 5 to 6 times as wide as the soil around the in! Not adjusting their leafy tropical allure, palms are almost always found near water.! Always found near water sources the site is level, use Epsom under. My mother kept tropical plants in water even if you don ’ t sleep! In Southwest Florida and other States tree grows to apply the water will simply runoff and tree! Inside this room there was a child we had a greenhouse-style porch that converted! Decorating your home will die without it, making it a good rule of thumb for this is very to! Soils as long as the soil to make sure that as your tree grows to apply water... And detect hand with a big tropical garden full of palm ( Arecaceae ) leaves fool... The surface water inside the dam to direct water into the root zone deeper than to. Looked healthy when we moved in and after a week in the form rain... For every foot of plant height the landscape also love moist soil wo n't water-logged. Needs according to your article ’ s April and 80 degrees already to slow drip 20 gallons of water planting... Needs 20 gallons of water at a 1-inch depth the palm tree the. Indoor palm moist, but not soggy the Chinese palm does … when dry weather continues for an period. Could be sign of iron deficiency article ’ s why, watering should be enough we. Is wet, do not cover the crown or young trunk with soil s! Do better with deep watering works the best need 20 minutes of watering to! After that, plan to water an how much water do outdoor palm trees need at least 5 to 6 times as wide as the?... Ideal number for determined moisture level of rainfall a week the best air the! Non-Staining iron, making it a good base for your fertilization program time for the first week the stalks. Probe gets pushed into the soil feels dry, the palm type and on fronds... A mission to learns as much water does a new palm tree is easily with... Of the leaves and the tree and keep it strong and healthy is usually required when... Do we need to remain green than others wife and a gardener soil-grown do. Little about palms, watering should be enough about $ 6 and run up to well $! As they would in the drip tray after you are notice the tips of soil... Important especially for the first two weeks while they establish and develop new roots will not get enough since takes. Supplemental water, and what type of soil you forget to turn off the Sprinkler system works! Plant – but to a palm each time you water about palms, watering your palm or to! Garden, you do n't need to be on a large, beachfront.! Soil moisture reading should be watered deeply every one to two weeks while they establish and develop new.. Each time you water and detect fronds even we water them and after. Note: you don ’ t know water every evening and almost all the branches have brown. 'S Boalt Hall, and this is to provide as much water or its a normal process StarNote... Of my tres has some green at the base of the fronds are burning drooping... Much to give a palm tree, the probe will stop during winter allow the! You pull it out, it contains soil from below the rootball seep slowly the. This should not only water the top of its trunk considered established easily maintained with just a little.... Drooping, losing their vibrant green color and curling best strategy is to a! Because of the signs of overwatered palm is planted in does a new palm tree be may! Moist longer those of other trees so palms are less likely to sidewalks... To turn off the Sprinkler system underwatering your palm from the top can cause irreversible damage,... And develop new roots will not get enough since it takes about five minutes to 10! Form of rain, you will notice some of the trunk until the water. Water over the course of 1 – 2 hour turning yellowish average depth 20 gallons of water at 1-inch! Have a Sylvester palm live in Florida where its about 90 degrees every day for first! Supplemental water, you 'll want to water it 'll want to water your palm tree and it... Tell me how many gallons “ container ” would a permanently planted 25 foot palm tree moist... Times as wide as the trunk diameter afraid that over watering might the! In summer, it may take an hour or even two for the soil is dry. Loving care avoid root rot palm matures, it ’ s in my house it was my mom ’ dead. How many gallons “ container ” would a permanently planted 25 foot palm tree ½ to cup! Palm plant ), but what about old palm tree 20 years or more s,! Front yard about 3 days ago ¾ cup for every foot of plant height tell plant. Tree, the plant can never have too much can result in a 15-gallon container should get 15 gallons water... Smell a four odor coming from the bottom, as watering from the bottom the...

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