sanitation, adequate transport, and recreational facilities, but it did not prevent a layered and somewhat chaotic development of housing and industrial production sites at the outskirts of the new neighbourhoods (Hansen 2001). As such, the Finger Plan is a particular type of planning strategy that, like other planning strategies, aims to avoid unplanned urbanization that often results in an amalgamation of urban areas with few and fragmented green areas. This is expected to greatly increase the connectivity between Denmark and central Europe. Dolowitz, D. and D. Marsh. They can be extended and shortened, and new fingers can be added. Ministry of the Environment. 310–28. Harvest, and M. Briiel (eds), Københavns Skitse til en Generalplan 1954 (Copenhagen: Byplanhistorisk Udvalg), pp. 2018. Professional, economic, and political interests clashed, and it is reported that Steen Eiler Rasmussen and Peter Bredsdorff had to use all their diplomatic skills to settle disputes and muster support for the emerging Finger Plan (Jensen 1990). As a result, the Finger Plan enjoyed widespread political, administrative, and societal support. Trust in the expertise of public sector professionals and their professional organizations, and willingness to listen to and discuss their public value proposals, certainly helped to get the Finger Plan off the ground. A window of opportunity was opening (Kingdon 1984) and the moment was seized by a dedicated group of architects and planners. ‘A Public Management for all Seasons?’ Public Administration 69(1), 3–19. De Rol van Planning bij de Bescherming van Groene Gebieden in Denemarken en Engeland (Rotterdam: NAI Publishers). To further justify the claim that robustness is important for the success of the Finger Plan, let us look at a quote from one of the recent Finger Plans published by the Ministry of the Environment: The urban finger structure appears to be a highly robust structure that has informed urban development in the metropolitan area since the first Finger In 1989 a Regional Plan followed the former finger plan. This quotation clearly ties robustness both to the ability to unify the concern for housing expansion and the preservation of green spaces, and to the ability to adapt to quantitative and qualitative change. 2006. Danish Urban Planning Lab. Hall, P. 1980. In order to muster support from administrators and politicians from local, regional, and national government, the planners wrote pamphlets and newspaper articles and gave public presentations on planning issues wherever they were invited to speak, not least at the so-called ‘office meetings’ at the city hall where there was a lively debate over the prospects for urban planning in the metropolitan region (Lyager 2004). While the initial implementation of the Finger Plan was relatively frictionless, new demands started to emerge only a few years after the General Plan had begun to be implemented. Urban Sprawl: Causes, Consequences and Policy Responses (New York: Rowman & Littlefield). The Finger Plan does that in several ways. Vejre, H., J. Primdahl, and J. Brandt. The Ministry of Domestic Affairs that regulated the municipal sector had also lost influence to the new Ministry of the Environment that became the chief planning agency as planning was increasingly connected with environmental issues. (ed.). Today, it provides a well-known reference point in international planning debates (Hall 1989; Ravesteyn et al. The Finger Plan was conceived in the optimistic post-war years from 1945 to 1948 when pressure on land use outside the city centre was still limited. 2012) that combined professional planning expertise (craft work) with political strategizing and popular support (political work). The Finger Plan" is the name of the regional plan for Greater Copenhagen. While the regional authorities in the metropolitan area did not have the mandate to determine what should be built, how and where, they were able to use the zoning law to ban housing construction in certain areas. The Finger Plan (Danish: Fingerplanen) is an urban plan from 1947 which provides a strategy for the development of the Copenhagen metropolitan area, Denmark. 1973 and 1989 Regional Plans. It does so by insisting that easy access to recreational areas is key to ensuring the quality of life of residents in the new urban fingers. The image of a hand with the palm resting on the compact inner city and the fingers spread out in different directions, indicating future urban developments, graced the cover of the original Finger Plan document from 1947, and has since been reproduced in an infinite number of planning documents. https://erhvervsstyrelsen.dk/sites/default/files/EndeligRrbechNotatomFingerplanogtransportkorridore.pdf. (p.226) Drawing on recent discussions of robust policy solutions (Ferraro et al. (Note) There are also reports on nature and environment policy, reports on retail trade planning, national park creation, etc. Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Capano, G. and J. J. Residential nodes are located around local stations, like mini Garden Cities. Two years later, the law was expanded to include construction work outside the city of Copenhagen (Hansen 2001). Greater Copenhagen Region 1 mill. Minister of Environment must veto a municipal plan proposal on behalf of all government ministers if the proposal contradicts national interests. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 22(1), 1–29. It reached its high point in the 1960s and 1970s, and while the role and impact of tripartite negotiations has declined in the 1980s and 1990s, the role of loosely coupled networks that bring together a broad range of public and private actors seems to have increased at all levels of government, not least the local municipalities where politicians and administrators engage in extensive negotiations with local citizens and stakeholders (Torfing 2010). In the process they lost some of their independent and autonomous status, although the Danish Urban Planning Lab continues to exist and still orchestrates important planning discussions. The Work Committee met twice a month and was the focus of intense political debate. The construction of new housing in the land zones was strictly forbidden. Fingerplan 2007 (Copenhagen: Ministry of the Environment). inhabitants, situated on the coast in the north-east of the island of Zealand. Together, the regions and the municipalities spend almost two thirds of total public expenditure and deliver the lion’s share of tax-financed welfare services to the citizens, although the latter are based on national legislation and state regulation that define minimum standards. Regionplan (Copenhagen: Capital Council). ‘Trafikplanlægningen I København 1954–2004’. All about public transport in Copenhagen Useful information on public transport, bus lines, metro, trains, zones, tickets, etc. Heaton, L., F. Millerand, D. Delon, F. Schmitt, L. Marseault, and J. Deschamps. failures—which are ubiquitous—result in urban sprawl, defined as dispersed and inefficient urbanization at the fringe of urban areas which results in sub-optimal land use, uneven development, and the loss of open farmland and nature. Innes, J. E. and D. E. Booher. Denmark is made up of the mainland -- consisting Jutland Peninsula, a part of European Continent, and an archipelago of 406 islands in various sizes (of which 75 are inhabited) --, Faroe Islands off the shore of Norwegian Sea, and Greenland, the largest island in the world. Since at least the 1970s, public participation has been a strong feature of spatial planning in Denmark. The Finger Plan was greatly influenced by the planet-city model that governed the expansion of the London metropolitan area. 2008. It is also mentioned in the plan that in broader area integration in Oresund Region may progress further. The contemporary architect Jens Rørbech describes the Finger Plan as an ‘ingenious plan for the metropolitan area’ (Rørbech 2011). The growing emphasis on urban planning helped to ensure the construction of new neighbourhoods with proper The traditional system of top-down government gave way to a system of collaborative governance (Ansell and Gash 2008; Emerson et al. In terms of urban planning in the metropolitan area, there were a few, lone attempts to plan urban development when King Christian IV expanded what today constitutes the inner city of Copenhagen in the first half of the seventeenth century. In S. Jensen, J. Geddes, P. 1949. The decisive step in the implementation of the Finger Plan was the construction of the five S-train lines around which the new housing and the related business and service functions would cluster and form small urban centres like the joints on a finger. The Finger Plan soon became a popular icon. Ansell, C. and A. Gash. Formulated in the optimistic post-war years, 1945–7, when the pressure on land use outside the city centre was still limited, the plan was initiated by the private Urban Planning Lab. The Finger Plan turns the potential zero-sum game between rapid urbanization, efficient transportation, and nature conservation for recreational purposes into a plus-sum game by linking the different functionalities in ways that create synergies rather than mutual externalities. The planners became a core part of the formal government institutions. 2017. CONTACTGeneral Affairs Division, Policy Planning office, NRPBTEL: +81-3-5253-8111 (Ext 29158), http://europa.eu/abc/maps/members/denmark_en.htm, About 43,000 km² (about the same as Kyusyu), About 5.70 million (2016: Statistics Denmark), Ministry of Industry, Business and Financial Affairs. S-train stations that are connected by cross-cutting lines of transportation have been given a new status as ‘hub stations’ around which particular service and business functions are expected to emerge and cluster (Ministry of the Environment 2013, 2017). It confirms Pollitt and Bouckaert’s model for public governance reform that aims to balance rational attempts to fit problems and solutions to each other while insisting on the importance of less rational events that open a window of opportunity (Pollitt and Bouckaert 2004). Hall, P. 1989. The construction of large shopping centres and housing complexes along the freight train line connecting the roots of the fingers was opposed by the local municipalities and residents outside the city centre, who feared that new buildings and roads would diminish the green areas and create further traffic congestion. We have already seen how the fingers constitute modules with sub-modular joints that can be extended, cut off, and multiplied in a highly flexible manner in response to changing demands. The elaborate system of corporatist negotiation was formed in the 1890s, institutionalized around the First World War, and further expanded during the 1930s and in the post-war era. The second principle is ‘green wedges’, which establishes that the urban fingers should be separated by green areas in which no building or construction is permitted. They have also prevented the development of cities in which housing and industry compete for space, traffic congestion is the norm, and green areas and open nature are scarce. Most of the mainland is flat (highest point is 173m) and 53% of it is agricultural land. Unfortunately, the material tends to lapse into long technical planning discussions, with only rather scant information on governance issues. Alternative strategies focusing on renovation of existing buildings and the creation of green inner courtyards spurred gentrification as the original tenants could not afford to live in the renovated flats. The post-war planning goal was accomplished by sticking to the ‘central city concept’ but letting housing and local service functions develop along five fingers stretching out from the inner city, which would constitute the palm of the hand. Our intention to interview some of the main actors to obtain further information about the governance process had to be abandoned since the key actors have all passed away. The Finger Plan has facilitated rapid urbanization in post-war Copenhagen without compromising the demand for distinct, coherent, and self-servicing neighbourhoods with easy access to fast and reliable transport to the inner city and to green The farmers formed a cooperative movement in order to facilitate the transition from crops to animal farming, whereas the workers formed cooperatives in response to capitalist exploitation. Ravesteyn, N. V., W. Hornis, F. Verwest, and H. Thorborg. Star, S. L. 2010. Drawing on recently developed theories of governance (Jessop 2002; Kooiman 2003; Sørensen and Torfing 2009), we can say that the involved government agencies played the role of a meta-governor that framed, supported, financed, and endorsed a networked governance process that took place outside the formal institutions of government, although it included a broad range of government actors. Planning builds on an element of forecasting—perceived as a mechanical exercise in projecting future trends—that often turns out to be flawed. In March 1945—two months before the German occupation ended—they invited a broad range of interested people to an open meeting in the Danish Urban Planning Lab, which was a private forum for discussion amongst architects and planners. Housing and local service functions should cluster around the stations on new train lines that would provide fast and efficient transport to workplaces at the roots of the fingers and in the inner city. 1998. Sørensen, E. and J. Torfing. Dismantling the Welfare State? Recently, Denmark drastically reorganized its public sectors following the legislation of local administrative reform in 2005 and its effectuation in January 2007. The plan on Greater Copenhagen was formulated for plural times since the first Finger Plan in 1947, and it was the first time for the national government to formulate it in 2007, as it had been formulated by councils which counties and municipalities participated (such as Greater Copenhagen Authority existed during 2000 to 2007) or otherwise study groups. As such, hobby farmers and sports grounds have replaced full-time farmers and farmland. Unlike the former Ocean Decade regional workshops, the Arctic process will take place after the adoption of the implementation plan by the UN General Assembly, and will thus have stronger focus on identifying and drafting actual realistic actions. This recognition added a new and important item to the planning agenda that the Finger Plan could build on. Governing as Governance (London: Sage). It is a cultural icon that most Danish people have heard about. Social and political actors in the Copenhagen metropolitan region faced a formidable challenge. Hajer, M. A. and H. Wagenaar (eds). and the construction of large shopping malls and housing complexes at the roots of the fingers. The analysis of the factors driving the successful formulation and implementation of the Finger Plan pays attention to the question of timing, the professional process management, the political coalition building, the strength of metaphors, and the ability to adapt to changing conditions. An architectural competition was held in 1965, and the winners provided detailed plans for the urbanization of Amager. The idea of a massive expansion of housing on the island of Amager was promising. Although robustness features prominently in a handful of social science contributions (Hood 1991; Leifer 1991; Marshall 2008; Schoon 2008; Capano and Woo 2017), we need more research on how public governance in general and planning in particular can provide robust solutions in the face of turbulence, and how modularity may help to enhance future adaptability and polyvalence. 2013) to adapt a public policy to future turbulence and to rearticulate its different elements within changing political frameworks that bring forth new goals and aspirations. 2005; Vejre et al. ‘Byplanlovene’. A green heart shared by a ring of surrounding urban areas is found in the Randstad region in the Netherlands. The CPH 2025 Climate Plan is a holistic plan as well as a collection of specific goals and initiatives within four areas – energy consumption, energy production, green mobility and the City Administration. 2017. Finally, the popular image of what constitutes a good and liveable city may change over time, causing planners and politicians to halt or reverse existing planning strategies and invent new ones, only to revert to some version of an older strategy. Lys, Luft og Renlighed: Den Moderne Socialhygiejnes Fødsel (Copenhagen: Academic Publishers). It was initiated by the private Urban Planning Lab and implemented by a dedicated group of planners in the semi-independent Regional Planning Office. Region ’ the Minister to establish specific rules for the future urbanization of Copenhagen corridors on,... By examining a genuine planning success based on careful analysis of localities Walker... Widespread popular support ( political work Traffic Plan ( Greater Copenhagen area local... Particular inspired by Patrick Geddes ’ book Survey before planning ( 1949 ) proposal, if it has important for. Alternatives, and Community-Based Environmental Governance beyond the local Scale ’ say in the.! 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Train within the city of Copenhagen ( Hansen 2001 ) and sports grounds have replaced farmers! The first factor has to do with the timing of the formal government institutions of...

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