I'd definition is - I would : I had : I should. It is equivalent to the \p{Nd} regular expression pattern, which includes the standard decimal digits 0-9 as well as the decimal digits of a number of other character sets. Kidney damage may be irreversible. [190][191] It was not initially realized that, unlike other vitamins, vitamin D can be synthesised by humans through exposure to UV light. "[62]:403 Although ULs are believed to be safe, information on the long-term effects is incomplete and these levels of intake are not recommended for long-term consumption.[62]:403:433. [38] Having darker skin and reduced exposure to sunshine did not produce rickets unless the diet deviated from a Western omnivore pattern characterized by high intakes of meat, fish, and eggs, and low intakes of high-extraction[definition needed] cereals. It is activated by two protein enzyme hydroxylation steps, the first in the liver and the second in the kidneys. There are two main forms: vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol).. Vitamin D 3 is synthesized in the skin by the action of sunlight. [135] Therefore, alternative explanations for the increase in cognitive impairment exist and hence a direct causal relationship between vitamin D levels and cognition could not be established. [110] Pregnant women often do not take the recommended amount of vitamin D.[109], Weight loss – Though hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation may be an effective treatment for obesity apart from calorie restriction, one systematic review found no association of supplementation with body weight or fat mass. [81], Taking vitamin D supplements does not meaningfully reduce the risk of stroke, cerebrovascular disease, cardial infarction, or ischemic heart disease. A vitamin D deficiency is a known cause of rickets. [167], Vitamin D overdose causes hypercalcemia, which is a strong indication of vitamin D toxicity – this can be noted with an increase in urination and thirst. Gino D'Acampo has cooked for Pavarotti and is well known in the UK for his appearances on Ready Steady Cook. Its discovery was due to effort to find the dietary substance lacking in children with rickets (the childhood form of osteomalacia). [105] Although taking vitamin D supplements during pregnancy raises blood levels of vitamin D in the mother at term,[106] the full extent of benefits for the mother or baby is unclear. Second, previtamin D3 spontaneously isomerizes to vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in an antarafacial sigmatropic [1,7] hydride shift. [1][2] In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). [18] The vitamin D receptor belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of steroid/thyroid hormone receptors, and VDRs are expressed by cells in most organs, including the brain, heart, skin, gonads, prostate, and breast. Find all the topics, resources, and contact options you need for Apple ID. Your best home improvement online store with Always Low Prices! [75], Because it found mounting evidence for a benefit to bone health, though it had not found good evidence of other benefits, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required manufacturers to declare the amount of vitamin D on nutrition facts labels, as "nutrients of public health significance", since May 2016. The symbol for the isotope deuterium. [172] The transformation of previtamin D2 to vitamin D2 in methanol has a rate comparable to that of previtamin D3. (before vowel sounds) Apocopic form of do: Marker of the past tense. In D major, that means D, G and A. In some countries, staple foods are artificially fortified with vitamin D.[132]. in loanwords from Greek ( Atreid; Nereid ), and productive in English on the Greek model, esp. D Sub-Shell (third outer subshell of an electron shell) D: District spare (Stores 100 code) D: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Ohio (designates original point of circulation of a dollar bill) D: Cohen's Measure of Effect Size (statistics; usually expressed as italic d) D: Deutschverzeichnis (Works of Schubert by Otto Erich Deutsch) D D3 Craftism by Digital Dream Design . Tune in for a holly jolly series of D&D games featuring a delightful cast of characters and notable Dungeon Masters. The threshold for vitamin D toxicity has not been established; however, according to some research, the tolerable upper intake level (UL) is 4,000 IU/day for ages 9–71[159] (100 µg/day), while other research concludes that, in healthy adults, sustained intake of more than 50,000 IU/day (1250 μg) can produce overt toxicity after several months and can increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to 150 ng/mL and greater. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Vitamin D is essential for several reasons, including maintaining healthy bones and teeth. [158], In 2011 an IOM committee concluded a serum 25(OH)D level of 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) is needed for bone and overall health. [119], The UK National Health Service (NHS) recommends that people at risk of vitamin D deficiency, breast-fed babies, formula-fed babies taking less than 500ml/day, and children aged 6 months to 4 years, should take daily vitamin D supplements throughout the year to ensure sufficient intake. D3 CuteBitMapism by … [14][61] Low vitamin D levels may result from disease rather than cause disease. [57], Supplementation with vitamin D is a reliable method for preventing or treating rickets. Who'd definition is - who would. The German Society for Nutrition recommends 20 µg. [125][126] Compliance with the updated labeling regulations was required by 1 January 2020 for manufacturers with US$10 million or more in annual food sales, and by 1 January 2021 for manufacturers with lower volume food sales. For example, in G minor, there are major chords on Bb, Eb and D. Gm. [153] One ng/mL is approximately equal to 2.5 nmol/L. You can't undo it. Vitamin D is essential for strong bones, because it helps the body use calcium from the diet. Primitive vertebrates in the ocean could absorb calcium from the ocean into their skeletons and eat plankton rich in vitamin D. Land vertebrates required another source of vitamin D other than plants for their calcified skeletons. n., pl. [76][127] A table of the old and new adult daily values is provided at Reference Daily Intake. ", Ergocalciferol can be directly hydroxylated at position 24 by, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 09:32. The variant form used before consonants, do, is generally omitted but may be encountered in Munster Irish and in literary language. ", "Adequate calcium and regular exercise may help to achieve strong bones in children and adolescents and may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in older adults. Used only before vowel sounds, including when f has been lenited to fh before a vowel. [62]:5 The tolerable upper intake level (UL) is defined as "the highest average daily intake of a nutrient that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for nearly all persons in the general population. over a latitudinal gradient: possible correlation with UV levels", "Natural vitamin D content in animal products", "Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans", "Vitamin D: An overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe", "Vitamin D for Milk and Milk Alternatives", "Federal Register: Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2", "Vitamin D: deficiency, sufficiency and toxicity", "Serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in response to vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation", "A global representation of vitamin D status in healthy populations", "Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery", "Genetic and environmental determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in Hispanic and African Americans", "Circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies", "The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know", "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety", "CYP24A1 and SLC34A1 genetic defects associated with idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia: from genotype to phenotype", "Vitamin D-Mediated Hypercalcemia: Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment", "FDA Cautions on Accurate Vitamin D Supplementation for Infants", "Regulation of calcitriol biosynthesis and activity: focus on gestational vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes", "Evolutionary biology and pathology of vitamin D", "History of the discovery of vitamin D and its active metabolites", "Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis", "Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos", "Cholecalciferol supplementation alters gut function and improves digestibility in an underground inhabitant, the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber), when fed on a carrot diet", "The vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences", "Tissue distribution of 7-dehydrocholesterol, vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in several species of fishes", "Genetic evidence that the human CYP2R1 enzyme is a key vitamin D 25-hydroxylase", "Section I: Ch. Compact executive cars are part of the D … See all hot deals as low as RM0.38! [1] The effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality is not clear, with one meta-analysis finding a small decrease in mortality in elderly people,[13] and another concluding no clear justification exists for recommending supplementation for preventing many diseases, and that further research of similar design is not needed in these areas.[14]. [211] A number of trials in different countries are being carried out in 2020 to address the potential for the use of vitamin D for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections. [171], The conversion from ergosterol to vitamin D2 follows a similar procedure, forming previtamin D2 by photolysis, which isomerizes to vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). In the liver, vitamin D was found to be converted to calcifediol. Fast code, fast. It was first published by Panasonic for the 3DO Interactive Multiplayer in 1995, later being ported to the Sega Saturn , PlayStation , and MS-DOS . Close. Vitamin D is essential for several reasons, including maintaining healthy bones and teeth. [24] A diet with insufficient vitamin D in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure causes vitamin D deficiency. [194] The informal academic collaboration between the team members Robert Benedict Bourdillon, Otto Rosenheim, Harold King, and Kenneth Callow was very productive and led to the isolation and characterization of vitamin D.[195] At this time, the policy of the Medical Research Council was not to patent discoveries, believing the results of medical research should be open to everybody. Exposure to sunlight for extended periods of time does not normally cause vitamin D toxicity. Furthermore, proteinuria, urinary casts, azotemia, and metastatic calcification (especially in the kidneys) may develop. How to use it'd in a sentence. [63] Members of the IOM panel maintain that they used a "standard procedure for dietary recommendations" and that the report is solidly based on the data. [19], Rickets, a childhood disease, is characterized by impeded growth and soft, weak, deformed long bones that bend and bow under their weight as children start to walk. Sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 8 based on the UVB spectrum decreases vitamin D synthetic capacity by 95%, and SPF 15 decreases it by 98%. [78] It is unclear, however, if taking additional vitamin D in the diet or as supplements affects the risk of cancer. It is also needed for bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts . D&AD Special Series with Love This Podcast Hosts Beth O’Brien and Joe Carter interview D&AD's Tim Lindsay and Jury Presidents, discussing how the creative industries at large are … [160] After being commissioned by the Canadian and American governments, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) as of 30 November 2010[update], has increased the tolerable upper limit (UL) to 2,500 IU per day for ages 1–3 years, 3,000 IU per day for ages 4–8 years and 4,000 IU per day for ages 9–71+ years (including pregnant or lactating women). He called it vitamin D because it was the fourth vitamin to be named. D&D London is a collection of 43 diverse restaurants, bars and one hotel based principally in London, but also with locations in Manchester, Leeds, Paris and New York. In an amplitude analysis of the B + → D + D − K + decay, the LHCb Collaboration finds evidence for new spin-0 and spin-1 exotic open-charm and open_strangeness resonances in the D − K + channel with masses around 2.9 GeV. Vitamin D promotes calcium absorption in the gut and maintains adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentrations to enable normal bone mineralization and to prevent hypocalcemic tetany (involuntary contraction of muscles, leading to cramps and spasms). [62], Australia and New Zealand published nutrient reference values including guidelines for dietary vitamin D intake in 2005. I'd definition is - I would : I had : I should. Other people may be able to make adequate vitamin D from sunlight exposure from April to September. 2. also d The symbol for the Roman numeral 500. abbr. However, some people with serum 25(OH)D between 30 and 50 ng/mL (75 nmol/L-125 nmol/L) will also have inadequate vitamin D.[62], Vitamin D toxicity is rare. [20], The VDR regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. [73] Taking extra vitamin D, however, does not appear to change the risk. [2][184], Following the final converting step in the kidney, calcitriol is released into the circulation. d’. [57][202], The United States National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements established a Vitamin D Initiative in 2014 to track current research and provide education to consumers. This will clear your Bing search history on this device. [3], Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) share a similar mechanism of action as outlined above. Haldane, J.D. For vitamin D deficiency: 50,000 IU per week for 6-12 weeks has been used. These two vitamin D metabolites (called 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D) are measured in serum to determine a person's vitamin D status. Vitamin D works with calcium and phosphorus for healthy bones, muscles and teeth. [3] As vitamin D can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals if exposed to sufficient sunlight, it is not essential, so technically not a vitamin. D Meson. [96] One review found that vitamin D supplementation could reduce the need for steroids used to inhibit episode frequency in people with mild to moderate asthma, and that supplementation had no effect on day-to-day asthma symptoms. How to use who'd in a sentence. [80] A 2020 systematic review and meta-analysis in people with colorectal cancer found evidence of a clinically meaningful benefit from vitamin D supplementation on outcomes, including survival, although the analysis had limitations. [31] This condition is characterized by bow legs,[29] which can be caused by calcium or phosphorus deficiency, as well as a lack of vitamin D; today, it is largely found in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, or the Middle East[32] and in those with genetic disorders such as pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets. [178], In birds and fur-bearing mammals, fur or feathers block UV rays from reaching the skin. The conversion of calcifediol to calcitriol is catalyzed by the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase, which is the product of the CYP27B1 human gene. [173] The precursor of vitamin D3, 7-dehydrocholesterol is produced in relatively large quantities. Compare. With Clark Gregg, Ming-Na Wen, Brett Dalton, Iain De Caestecker. [53][54][55] Dark-skinned people are less efficient at making vitamin D because melanin in the skin hinders vitamin D synthesis. [210], The major complication of COVID-19 is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which may be aggravated by vitamin D deficiency,[211] an association that is not specific to coronavirus infections. [28][176], Sunscreen absorbs or reflects ultraviolet light and prevents much of it from reaching the skin. [3] This reaction is catalyzed by the microsomal enzyme vitamin D 25-hydroxylase, the product of the CYP2R1 human gene, and expressed by hepatocytes. [14] Other forms (vitamin D2, alfacalcidol, and calcitriol) do not appear to have any beneficial effects with regard to the risk of death. Regardless of experience level, there’s something to … [28] It is caused by supplementing with high doses of vitamin D rather than sunlight. [44] An increase in the proportion of animal protein[42][45] in the 20th century American diet coupled with increased consumption of milk[46][47] fortified with relatively small quantities of vitamin D coincided with a dramatic decline in the number of rickets cases. Vitamin D is produced in the keratinocytes of two innermost strata of the epidermis, the stratum basale and stratum spinosum, which also are able to produce calcitriol and express the VDR.[177]. 1 The Mystery of D. 2 Carriers of the Initial "D." 2.1 Carriers' Profile 3 "Inherited Will" 4 Translation and Dub Issues 5 Trivia 6 References 7 Site Navigation The initial was first pointed out in Oda's SBS questions and answers corner, when he was asked what the D. in Luffy's name stood for. 1. a means of identification, as a document containing information regarding the bearer's identity. The greatest benefit with supplementation is seen in athletes who are deficient (25(OH)D serum levels <30 ng/mL), or severely deficient (25(OH)D serum levels <25 ng/mL). [166] For infants (birth to 12 months), the tolerable upper limit (maximum amount that can be tolerated without harm) is set at 25 μg/day (1,000 IU). Powerful I/O. It can be taken from animals in its normal form if the animal is exposed to enough sunlight. The process is faster in white button mushrooms.[136](fig. This dose should be increased to 100 µg (4,000 IU) in some patients with very low vitamin D status or in case of co-morbid conditions. D-LAN - A free LAN file sharing software.. [156], Published cases of toxicity involving hypercalcemia in which the vitamin D dose and the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels are known all involve an intake of ≥40,000 IU (1,000 μg) per day. The two major forms are vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol, and vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol; vitamin D without a subscript refers to either D2 or D3 or both. Learn More [204] One meta-analysis found a decrease in mortality in elderly people. Step 3 Click on the option labeled "Open" to view the contents inside the D drive. [6][2] Only a few foods, such as the flesh of fatty fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D.[1][7] In the U.S. and other countries, cow's milk and plant-derived milk substitutes are fortified with vitamin D, as are many breakfast cereals. [20] Thus, vitamin D is also critical for bone remodeling through its role as a potent stimulator of bone resorption. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. [144][145], While some studies have found that vitamin D3 raises 25(OH)D blood levels faster and remains active in the body longer,[146][147] others contend that vitamin D2 sources are equally bioavailable and effective as D3 for raising and sustaining 25(OH)D.[136][148][149], Vitamin D content in typical foods is reduced variably by cooking. An adequate intake of vitamin D is also necessary. [19] Also, in the United States and Canada, vitamin D-fortified milk, infant vitamin supplements, and vitamin supplements have helped to eradicate the majority of cases of rickets for children with fat malabsorption conditions. Serum 25(OH)D levels above 50 ng/mL (125 nmol/L) may be cause for concern. [184], Whether it is made in the skin or ingested, vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver at position 25 (upper right of the molecule) to form 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcifediol or 25(OH)D). [1][2][3], The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the lower layers of skin epidermis through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation). [77] Associations have been shown in observational studies between low vitamin D levels and the risk of development of certain cancers. [12] The modified oil cured the sick dogs, so McCollum concluded the factor in cod liver oil which cured rickets was distinct from vitamin A. A systematic review and meta-analysis", "Special considerations for vitamin D in the south Asian population in the UK", "The uncertain significance of low vitamin D levels in African descent populations: a review of the bone and cardiometabolic literature", "Utility of sun-reactive skin typing and melanin index for discerning vitamin D deficiency", "Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline", "Vitamin D and calcium: a systematic review of health outcomes", "Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials", "Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States", "Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post-menopausal women and older men", "A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention", "Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: an updated meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force", "Association Between Calcium or Vitamin D Supplementation and Fracture Incidence in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis", "Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health", "Anticancer vitamins du Jour--The ABCED's so far", "Prognostic role of vitamin d status and efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in cancer patients: a systematic review", "Review: the impacts of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels on cancer patient outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Vitamin D Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease Risks in More Than 83 000 Individuals in 21 Randomized Clinical Trials: A Meta-analysis", "Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Incorporating Individual Patient Data", "Vitamin D and immune regulation: antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory", "Vitamin D and HIV: letting the sun shine in", "Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis", "Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials", "Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data", "Vitamin D supplementation for preventing infections in children under five years of age", "Vitamin D supplementation, moderate sun exposure, and control of immune diseases", "Association Between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis", "Clinical review: Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on improving glucose homeostasis and preventing diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Role of vitamin D in diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease", "Vitamin D supplementation for depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials", "Vitamin D, cognition, and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies", "Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Updated meta-analysis on maternal outcomes", "Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: state of the evidence from a systematic review of randomised trials", "Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy", "Vitamin D and its role during pregnancy in attaining optimal health of mother and fetus", "Association Between Vitamin D Supplementation During Pregnancy and Offspring Growth, Morbidity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis", "Vitamin D status and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled weight-loss trials", "Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin D and normal function of the immune system and inflammatory response (ID 154, 159), maintenance of normal muscle function (ID 155) and maintenance of normal cardiovascular function (ID 159) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006", "Scientific opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and risk of falling pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006", "Guidance for Industry: Food Labeling Guide", "Health Canada Scientific Summary on the U. S. Health Claim Regarding Calcium and Osteoporosis", "Regulatory Systems of Health Claims in Japan", "Vitamin D and Calcium: Updated Dietary Reference Intakes", "Nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand", "Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of vitamin D", "Federal Register May 27, 2016 Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. VISION. [209] Both organizations included recommendations to continue the previous established recommendations on vitamin D supplementation for other reasons, such as bone and muscle health, as applicable. Search Support [1], Vitamin D from the diet, or from skin synthesis, is biologically inactive. The active vitamin D metabolite calcitriol mediates its biological effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is principally located in the nuclei of target cells. [57] This is due to the levels of melanin in the skin, as it acts as a natural protectant from sun exposure. [100], Diabetes – A systematic review of 2014 concluded that the available studies show no evidence of vitamin D3 supplementation having an effect on glucose homeostasis or diabetes prevention. [38][42], Vitamin D deficiency remains the main cause of rickets among young infants in most countries because breast milk is low in vitamin D and social customs and climatic conditions can prevent adequate sun exposure. v., ID'd or IDed or ID'ed, ID'ing or ID•ing. The Swedish National Food Agency recommends a daily intake of 10 μg (400 IU) of vitamin D3 for children and adults up to 75 years, and 20 μg (800 IU) for adults 75 and older. There has been a lot of confusion about vitamin D supplementation. [109] Vitamin D supplementation is also likely to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes, undersized babies[108] and of their poor rate of growth. Create an account or log into Facebook. [1], Vitamin D has a significant role in calcium homeostasis and metabolism. [14][82] Supplementation may have no effect on blood pressure. These three chords form the basis of a huge number of popular songs. The FDA advised manufacturers of liquid vitamin D supplements that droppers accompanying these products should be clearly and accurately marked for 400 international units (1 IU is the biological equivalent of 25 ng cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol). [13] Insufficient evidence existed to recommend vitamin D supplements for all people with cancer, although some evidence suggested that low vitamin D may be associated with a worse outcome for some cancers,[79] and that higher 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels at the time of diagnosis were associated with better outcomes. Steenbock patented his invention some on cell growth, neuromuscular and immune functions, and run fast component... Age and pregnancy status 171 ] Land vertebrates have been associated with poor and!, literature, geography, and metastatic calcification ( especially in the middle of D... 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